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Dr Mark Spalding

Dr Mark Spalding

Senior Marine Scientist, The Nature Conservancy

Visiting Fellow

Room 404 Austin Building
Office Phone: 01223 (3)34459

Biography:

Mark Spalding has a passion for the natural environment, particularly the oceans. He has worked continuously in the international conservation arena since graduating, and while studying for his PhD. He has built up an extensive experience, including fieldwork, regional and global studies. Alongside producing key publications on tropical coastal ecosystems he has worked more widely on oceans and protected areas issues, most recently having a strong focus on measuring ecosystem service delivery at large to global scales.

Current position.
Mark is a Senior Marine Scientist, Global Marine Team, The Nature Conservancy (TNC), while concurrently holding a research associate (visiting scholar) position at the University of Cambridge Conservation Science Laboratory, Department of Zoology, with some lecturing roles. Mark also has a part-time position as Chief Scientific Advisor to the Government of the British Indian Ocean Territory (BIOT). 

His work centres on the assessment of global biodiversity, and on the enumeration of ecosystem services. Research has focused on describing patterns, condition, threat and conservation efforts notably with recent publications on mangroves, coral reefs and oyster reefs. Working as the principle investigator with two post-doctoral researchers and a research assistant in the University, also investigating the quantification of ecosystem services including filtration and fisheries enhancement by oysters and the role of mangroves in coastal protection. The aim of all this work is to communicate, inform and support global science and policy audiences as a means of ensuring timely and appropriate conservation actions and investments. Alongside the global analyses are more specific regional analyses, and the provision of information and advice to others in TNC, from field-based operators to senior managers. Current projects underway or in development include:

            Assessment of habitat restoration targets for shellfish reefs in estuaries of North America

            Research into the role of ecosystems in coastal protection

            Global assessment of marine protected areas coverage and efficacy

            Reviewing the role of mangroves in fisheries enhancement  

            Investigations into quantifying the threats (Red-listing) facing marine habitats

Science communication has been a major theme for a number of years with regular interviews for print and broadcast media and contributions through educational film and radio scripts and narration.

In his role as Chief Scientific Advisor to BIOT, also known as the Chagos Archipelago, Mark provides advice to the government of this important UK overseas territory on a broad range of environmental issues, including ongoing research programmes, and on management measures around the coral reefs and islands, and the large military installation of Diego Garcia. Chagos includes one of the world's largest marine protected areas, with some of the world's least impacted coral reefs. 

 

Previous Employment

2002-2004 – Independent consultant, with positions as a Research Associate, Cambridge Coastal Research Unit, University of Cambridge and Senior Consultant, UNEP World Conservation Monitoring Centre. Outputs included: A Guide to the Coral Reefs of the Caribbean

1998-2002 - Senior Marine Ecologist, UNEP World Conservation Monitoring Centre (UNEP-WCMC). Led research and managed team on coral reefs, mangroves and seagrasses. Managed marine protected areas information. Outputs included Reefs at Risk, World Atlas of Coral Reefs, World Atlas of Seagrasses.

1994-1998 – PhD, Department of Geography, University of Cambridge. Also wrote World Mangrove Atlas.

1990-1994 - Marine Research Officer, WCMC. Co-ordinator of marine activities, working on marine protected areas, small island states, and coral reef and mangrove mapping.

University.
Clare College, Cambridge (1987-90). Natural Sciences.
Clare College and Department of Geography, University of Cambridge (1994-1998). PhD

Project management experience
       Natural Coastal Protection. Supervising a post-doc and associated international partners to investigate and better quantify the importance of natural ecosystems as coastal defence. Leading 3 international workshops
       Oyster Reef Ecosystem Services. Supervising a post-doc and Science Advisory Group of 15 experts to review the historic and present distribution of oyster reefs in the US and quantify key ecosystem services
       Marine Ecoregions of the World. Selected and led a group of 15, representing 11 different organisations, in a 2-year process to devise a biogeographic categorisation for the world’s coasts and oceans
       Global habitat mapping. Led global mapping work on coral reefs, mangroves, seagrasses and saltmarshes with UNEP-WCMC, FAO and other partners.
       Coral reef research expeditions. Undertaken several expeditions and led or co-led boat-based expeditions to the Seychelles and Chagos Archipelago in 1998, 1999, 2001, and 2005.

Research Themes

Conservation Science:
All Principal Investigators:

Coastal ecosystems, conservation and ecosystem services

Research Interests

Global and regional reviews and assessments of marine ecosystems, ecosystem services, threats and conservation efforts.

The Nature Conservancy is, by most metrics, one of the “big hitters” in the world of international nature conservation efforts – working on the ground in 35 countries, but also seeking to influence policy and society at local, national and global levels. TNC is one of the leading NGOs in marine conservation, with hundreds of field practitioners across the Americas, Pacific and Asia: we are actively engaged in fishing villages in Indonesia, restoring shellfish reefs in the USA, supporting national governments in marine spatial planning in the Caribbean and much much more. But such efforts would remain piecemeal without a broader vision and the means to tell the wider story and spread the messages of success.

The Nature Conservancy’s (TNC) Global Marine Team (www.nature.org/marine) attempts to connect the vast wealth of experiences within and beyond our organisation, to share ideas and to develop new ones. Within this group my own work has a strong focus on global assessments of biodiversity distribution and the ecosystem services from these. I also look at large-scale human impacts and conservation efforts. Such information is critical to influence regional to global-level decisions which are becoming increasingly important in the face of globalised threats such as climate change and overfishing.

It is essential that such large-scale assessments are fully informed by, and closely connected to, conservation practice on the ground. This needs to be a 2-way flow, with the big-picture information also feeding back down to finer scales in order to inform and provide context for conservation action on the ground. Being based in Cambridge University also provides a critical peer-network – a place where hard-thinking, and positive criticism helps to shape and build ideas; and also a place with an extraordinary web of other environmental NGOs and practitioners (see www.cambridgeconservationforum.org.uk).

Working with post-docs and partners we are helping to inform conservation management, priority setting and future investment policies. Our work aims to inform and influence not only the senior leadership within TNC, but also the global community: both through engagement in academic and policy fora, and in the regular and high profile, publication of scientific findings which will inform and direct academic, policy and public awareness.

Key Publications

Books and key articles   

   Spalding, M. D., A. L. McIvor, M. W. Beck, E. W. Koch, I. Möller, D. J. Reed, P. Rubinoff, T. Spencer, T. J. Tolhurst, T. V. Wamsley, B. K. v. Wesenbeeck, E. Wolanski, and C. D. Woodroffe. 2013. Coastal ecosystems: a critical element of risk reduction Conservation Letters.
    James Hutchison, Andrea Manica, Ruth Swetnam, Andrew Balmford, and Mark Spalding, "Predicting global patterns in the carbon storage of mangrove forests," Conservation Letters (2013).
    Mark D. Spalding, Imèn Meliane, Amy Milam, Claire Fitzgerald, and Lynne Z. Hale, "Protecting Marine Spaces: global targets and changing approaches," Ocean Yearbook 27, 213-248 (2013).

    Philine S E Zu Ermgassen, Mark D. Spalding, Brady Blake, Loren D. Coen, Brett Dumbauld, Steve Geiger, Jonathan H. Grabowski, Raymond Grizzle, Mark Luckenbach, Kay McGraw, Bill Rodney, Jennifer L. Ruesink, Sean P. Powers, and Robert Brumbaugh, "Historical ecology with real numbers: Past and present extent and biomass of an imperilled estuarine habitat," Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences (2012).
    Mark Spalding, Vera Agostini, Susie Grant, and Jake Rice, "Pelagic provinces of the world: a biogeographic classification of the world’s surface pelagic waters," Ocean and Coastal Management 90, 19-30 (2012).

    L. Burke, K Reytar, M. Spalding, and Allison L. Perry, Reefs at Risk Revisited. (World Resources Institute, The Nature Conservancy, WorldFish Center, International Coral Reef Action Network, UNEP World Conservation Monitoring Centre and Global Coral Reef Monitoring Network, Washington, D.C., 2011).

    M. D. Spalding, M Kainuma, and Lorna Collins, World Atlas of Mangroves. (Earthscan, with International Society for Mangrove Ecosystems, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, The Nature Conservancy, UNEP World Conservation Monitoring Centre, United Nations Scientific and Cultural Organisation, United Nations University, London, 2010).

    J.E.N. Veron, O. Hoegh-Guldberg, T.M. Lenton, J.M. Lough, D.O. Obura, P. Pearce-Kelly, C.R.C. Sheppard, M. Spalding, M.G. Stafford-Smith, and A.D. Rogers, "The coral reef crisis: The critical importance of <350ppm CO2," Marine Pollution Bulletin 58 (10), 1428-1437 (2009).

    M. Spalding, L. Fish, and L. Wood, "Towards representative protection of the world’s coasts and oceans – progress, gaps and opportunities," Conservation Letters 1 (5), 217-226 (2008).
    Jennifer L. Molnar, Rebecca L. Gamboa, Carmen Revenga, and Mark D. Spalding, "Assessing the global threat of invasive species to marine biodiversity," Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 6 (9), 485-492 (2008).
    Benjamin S. Halpern, Shaun Walbridge, Kimberly A. Selkoe, Carrie V. Kappel, Fiorenza Micheli, Caterina D'Agrosa, John F. Bruno, Kenneth S. Casey, Colin Ebert, Helen E. Fox, Rod Fujita, Dennis Heinemann, Hunter S. Lenihan, Elizabeth M.P. Madin, Matthew T. Perry, Elizabeth R. Selig, Mark Spalding, Robert Steneck, and Reg Watson, "A global map of human impact on marine ecosystems," Science 319, 948-952 (2008).
    S. Chape, M. Spalding, and M. Jenkins, The World's Protected Areas. Status, values, and prospects in the twenty-first century. (University of California Press, Berkeley, California, 2008).

    Mark D. Spalding, Helen E. Fox, Gerald R. Allen, Nick Davidson, Zach A. Ferdaña, Max Finlayson, Benjamin S. Halpern, Miguel A. Jorge, Al Lombana, Sara A. Lourie, Kirsten D. Martin, Edmund McManus, Jennifer Molnar, Cheri A. Recchia, and James Robertson, "Marine Ecoregions of the World: a bioregionalization of coast and shelf areas," BioScience 57 (7), 573-583 (2007).

    M. D. Spalding, A Guide to the Coral Reefs of the Caribbean. University of California Press, Berkeley, USA, 2004.

    C. M. Roberts, C. J. McLean, G. R. Allen, J. P. Hawkins, D. E. McAllister, C. Mittermeier, F. Schueler, M. Spalding, J. E. N. Veron, F. Wells, C. Vynne, and T. Werner, "Marine biodiversity hotspots and conservation priorities for tropical reefs," Science 295, 1280-1284 (2002).

    M. D. Spalding, C. Ravilious, and E. P. Green, World Atlas of Coral Reefs. University of California Press, Berkeley, California, 2001.

Other Publications

This is ALL publications and reports, including those already listed above (newest first):

   Spalding, M. D., S. Ruffo, C. Lacambra, I. Meliane, L. Z. Hale, C. C. Shepard, and M. W. Beck. in press. The role of ecosystems in coastal protection: adapting to climate change and coastal hazards. Ocean and Coastal Management.  
   Zu Ermgassen, P. S. E., M. D. Spalding, and R. Brumbaugh. in press. Historic ecosystem service provision estimates can guide restoration efforts.in J. N. J. Kittinger, L. E. McClenachan, K. Gedan, and L. K. .Blight, editors. Applying Marine Historical Ecology to Conservation and Management: Using the Past to Manage for the Future.    

2013
   Boucher, T., M. Spalding, and C. Revenga (2013), The Role and Trends of Protected Areas in Conservation, in Encyclopedia of Biodiversity, 2nd Edition, edited by P. Kareiva and S. Levin, Elsevier, Oxford.  
  Hutchison, J., Andrea Manica, Ruth Swetnam, Andrew Balmford, and Mark Spalding, "Predicting global patterns in the carbon storage of mangrove forests," Conservation Letters (2013).
  Keith, D. A., Jon Paul Rodríguez, Kathryn M. Rodríguez-Clark, Kaisu Aapala, Alfonso Alonso, Marianne Asmussen, Steven Bachman, Alberto Bassett, Edmund G. Barrow, John S. Benson, Melanie J. Bishop, Ronald Bonifacio, Thomas M. Brooks, Mark A. Burgman, Patrick Comer, Francisco A. Comín, Franz Essl, Don Faber-Langendoen, Peter G. Fairweather, Robert Holdaway, Michael Jennings, Richard T. Kingsford, Rebecca E. Lester, Ralph Mac Nally, Michael A. McCarthy, Justin Moat, Emily Nicholson, María A. Oliveira-Miranda, Phil Pisanu, Brigitte Poulin, Uwe Riecken, Mark D. Spalding, and Sergio Zambrano-Martínez, "Scientific foundations for an IUCN Red List of Ecosystems," PLoS ONE (2013)
  
McIvor, A. L., I. Möller, T. Spencer, and M. Spalding. 2013. Mangroves as a sustainable coastal defence. Page 8 in 7th International Conference on Asian and Pacific Coasts (APAC). The Nature Conservancy, University of Cambridge, and Wetlands International, Bali, Indonesia, September 24-26. 
   McIvor, A. L., T. Spencer, I. Möller, and M. Spalding. 2013. The response of mangrove soil surface elevation to sea level rise.The Nature Conservancy, University of Cambridge, and Wetlands International, Cambridge, UK.
   Spalding, M.D., Imèn Meliane, Amy Milam, Claire Fitzgerald, and Lynne Z. Hale, "Protecting Marine Spaces: global targets and changing approaches," Ocean Yearbook 27, 213-248 (2013).
   Spalding, M. D., A. L. McIvor, M. W. Beck, E. W. Koch, I. Möller, D. J. Reed, P. Rubinoff, T. Spencer, T. J. Tolhurst, T. V. Wamsley, B. K. v. Wesenbeeck, E. Wolanski, and C. D. Woodroffe. 2013. Coastal ecosystems: a critical element of risk reduction Conservation Letters.    
   Zu Ermgassen, P. S. E., M. W. Gray, C. J. Langdon, M. D. Spalding, and R. Brumbaugh. 2013. Quantifying the historic contribution of Olympia oysters to filtration in Pacific Coast (USA) estuaries, and the implications for restoration objectives. Aquatic Ecology.
   Zu Ermgassen, P. S. E., Mark D. Spalding, Raymond Grizzle, and Robert Brumbaugh, "Quantifying the loss of a marine ecosystem service: filtration by the Eastern Oyster in US estuaries," Estuaries and Coasts 36, 36-43 (2013).  

2012
    Burke, L., K. Reytar, M. Spalding, and A. L. Perry (2012), Reefs at Risk Revisited in the Coral Triangle, 72 pp., World Resources Institute, with USAID-Asia, Coral Triangle Initiative, Coral Triangle Support Partnership, The Nature Conservancy, WorldFish Center, UNEP World Conservation Monitoring Centre Washington, D.C.
 
   McIvor, A. L., I. Möller, T. Spencer, and M. Spalding. 2012. Reduction of Wind and Swell Waves by Mangroves. Natural Coastal Protection Series: Report 1., The Nature Conservancy, University of Cambridge, and Wetlands International, Cambridge, UK.  
   McIvor, A. L., T. Spencer, I. Möller, and M. Spalding. 2012. Storm Surge Reduction by Mangroves. Natural Coastal Protection Series: Report 2., The Nature Conservancy, University of Cambridge, and Wetlands International, Cambridge, UK. 
  Spalding, M.D., Vera Agostini, Susie Grant, and Jake Rice, "Pelagic provinces of the world: a biogeographic classification of the world’s surface pelagic waters," Ocean and Coastal Management 90, 19-30 (2012).
   Sutherland, W. J., S. Bardsley, M. Clout, M. H. Depledge, L. V. Dicks, L. Fellman, E. Fleishman, D. W. Gibbons, B. Keim, F. Lickorish, C. Margerison, K. A. Monk, K. Norris, L.S. Peck, S. V. Prior, J. P. W. Scharlemann, M.D. Spalding, and A. R  Watkinson, "A horizon scan of global conservation issues for 2013," Trends in Ecology and Evolution (2012).     
   Van Lavieren, H., M. Spalding, D. Alongi, M. Kainuma, M. Clüsener-Godt, and Z. Adeel (2012), Securing the Future of Mangroves. A Policy Brief., UNU-INWEH, UNESCO MAB with ISME, ITTO, FAO, UNEP WCMC and TNC, Hamilton, Canada.
   Zu Ermgassen, Philine S E, Mark D. Spalding, Brady Blake, Loren D. Coen, Brett Dumbauld, Steve Geiger, Jonathan H. Grabowski, Raymond Grizzle, Mark Luckenbach, Kay McGraw, Bill Rodney, Jennifer L. Ruesink, Sean P. Powers, and Robert Brumbaugh, "Historical ecology with real numbers: Past and present extent and biomass of an imperilled estuarine habitat," Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences (2012).

2011
   Sutherland, W., et al., Horizon scan of global conservation issues for 2011. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 2011. 26(1): p. 10-16.
   Jacquet, J., et al., Scanning the Oceans for Solutions. Solutions, 2011. 2(1): p. 46-55.
   L. Burke, K Reytar, M. Spalding, and Allison L. Perry, Reefs at Risk Revisited. (World Resources Institute, The Nature Conservancy, WorldFish Center, International Coral Reef Action Network, UNEP World Conservation Monitoring Centre and Global Coral Reef Monitoring Network, Washington, D.C., 2011).  
   Toropova, C., et al., eds. Global Ocean Protection: Present Status and Future Possibilities. 2010, IUCN, The Nature Conservancy, UNEP-WCMC, UNEP, UNU-IAS, Agence des aires marines protégées, France: Gland, Switzerland, Arlington, USA, Cambridge, UK, Nairobi, Kenya, Tokyo, Japan, and Brest, France. 96.

2010
   Sutherland, W.J., et al., A Horizon Scan of Global Conservation Issues for 2010. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 2010. 25(1): p. 1-7.
   Spalding, M.D., M. Kainuma, and L. Collins, World Atlas of Mangroves. 2010, London: Earthscan, with International Society for Mangrove Ecosystems, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, The Nature Conservancy, UNEP World Conservation Monitoring Centre, United Nations Scientific and Cultural Organisation, United Nations University.
   Spalding, M., et al., The 10% Target: Where Do We stand?, in Global Ocean Protection: Present Status and Future Possibilities, C. Toropova, et al., Editors. 2010, IUCN, The Nature Conservancy, UNEP-WCMC, UNEP, UNU-IAS, Agence des aires marines protégées, France: Gland, Switzerland, Arlington, USA, Cambridge, UK, Nairobi, Kenya, Tokyo, Japan, and Brest, France. p. 25-40.
   Rodríguez, J.P., et al., Establishing IUCN Red List Criteria for threatened ecosystems. Conservation Biology, 2010. 25(1): p. 21-29.
   Mangi, S., et al., Establishing a marine protected area in the Chagos Archipelago: socio-economic considerations. Report of workshop held 7 January 2010, Royal Holloway, University of London, UK. 2010, Royal Holloway, University of London: London. p. 26.
   Hoekstra, J., et al., The Atlas of Global Conservation: changes, challenges and opportunities to make a difference. 2010, Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
   Graham, N.A.J., M. Spalding, and C. Sheppard, Reef shark declines in remote atolls highlight the need for multi-faceted conservation action. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems, 2010. DOI: 10.1002/aqc.1116.
   Brumbaugh, R.D., et al., Changing a management paradigm and rescuing a globally imperiled habitat. National Wetlands Newsletter, 2010. 32(6): p. 16-20.

2009
   Veron, J.E.N., et al., The coral reef crisis: The critical importance of <350ppm CO2. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 2009. 58(10): p. 1428-1437.
   Spalding, M., et al., Pelagic systems, in Global Open Oceans and Deep Seabed (GOODS) – Biogeographic Classification, UNESCO, Editor. 2009, Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (UNESCO-IOC): Paris. p. 21-26.
   Hale, L.Z., et al., Ecosystem-based Adaptation in Marine and Coastal Ecosystems. Renewable Resources Journal, 2009. 25(4): p. 21-28.
   Graham, N.A.J., et al., Coral mortality versus structural collapse as drivers of corallivorous butterflyfish decline. Biodiversity and Conservation, 2009. 18: p. 3325-3336.

2008
  
Spalding, M.D., Detecting and monitoring coral bleaching events, in Coral Bleaching: Patterns, Processes, Causes and Consequences, M. van Oppen and J.M. Lough, Editors. 2008, Springer Verlag. p. 69-82.
   M. Spalding, L. Fish, and L. Wood, "Towards representative protection of the world’s coasts and oceans – progress, gaps and opportunities," Conservation Letters 1 (5), 217-226 (2008).  
   Spalding, M., L. Fish, and L. Wood, Marine Protected Areas - Coverage and Gaps, in Convention on Biological Diversity, Working Group on Protected Areas meeting 2. 2008: Rome.  
   Jennifer L. Molnar, Rebecca L. Gamboa, Carmen Revenga, and Mark D. Spalding, "Assessing the global threat of invasive species to marine biodiversity," Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 6 (9), 485-492 (2008).  
   Halpern, B.S., et al., A global map of human impact on marine ecosystems. Science, 2008. 319: p. 948-952.
   Graham, N.A.J., et al., Climate warming, marine protected areas and the ocean-scale integrity of coral reef ecosystems. PLoS ONE, 2008. 3(8): p. 9.
   Chape, S., M. Spalding, and M. Jenkins, The World's Protected Areas. Status, values, and prospects in the twenty-first century. 2008, Berkeley, California: University of California Press. 359.
   Agostini, V., et al., Global Open Oceans and Deep Seabed (GOODS) bioregional classification. CoP 9 Information Document 44, in Ninth Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity. 2008, Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity: Bonn, Germany. p. 79.

EARLIER

Spalding, M.D., et al., Marine Ecoregions of the World: a bioregionalization of coast and shelf areas. BioScience, 2007. 57(7): p. 573-583.

Spalding, M.D., Illegal sea cucumber fisheries in the Chagos Archipelago. SPC Beche-de-mer Information Bulletin, 2006. 23: p. 32-34.

Spalding, M., et al., How protected are coral reefs? Science, 2006. 314: p. 758.

Spencer, T. and M.D. Spalding, Coral reefs of Southeast Asia: controls, patterns and human impacts, in Physical Geography of Southeast Asia, A. Gupta, Editor. 2005, Oxford University Press: Oxford, UK. p. 402-427.

Chape, S., et al., Measuring the extent and effectiveness of protected areas as an indicator for meeting global biodiversity targets. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, B, 2005. 360: p. 443-455.

Spalding, M.D., Mangroves, in Encyclopedia of Forest Sciences, J. Burley, J. Evans, and J. Youngquist, Editors. 2004, Academic Press: California. p. 1704-1712.

Spalding, M.D., A Guide to the Coral Reefs of the Caribbean. 2004, Berkeley, USA: University of California Press. 256.

Spalding, M. and P. Kramer, The Caribbean, in Defying Ocean's End: an agenda for action, L.K. Glover and S.A. Earle, Editors. 2004, Island Press: Washington DC. p. 7-41.

Spalding, M.D., et al., Global overview: the distribution and status of seagrasses, in World Atlas of Seagrasses, E.P. Green and F.T. Short, Editors. 2003, University of California Press: Berkeley, USA. p. 5-26, 262-286.

Spalding, M.D., Partial recovery of sharks in the Chagos Archipelago. Shark News, newsletter of the IUCN Shark Specialist Group, 2003. 15: p. 12-3.

Sheppard, C.R.C. and M.D. Spalding, Chagos Conservation Management Plan. 2003, British Indian Ocean Territory Administration, Foreign and Commonwealth Office: London. p. 53.

Chape, S., et al., 2003 United Nations List of Protected Areas. 2003, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge UK: IUCN - World Conservation Union and UNEP World Conservation Monitoring Centre. 44.

Spalding, M.D. and G.E. Jarvis, The impact of the 1998 coral mortality on reef fish communuities in the Seychelles. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 2002. 44: p. 309-21.

Spalding, M.D., Spatial variation in coral reef fish biodiversity at intermediate scales around oceanic islands. Proceedings of the Ninth International Coral Reef Symposium, Bali, 2002. 1: p. 81-7.

Spalding, M., The World Heritage List - the best of all worlds? Parks, 2002. 12(3): p. 50-7.

Sheppard, C.R.C., et al., Erosion vs. recovery of coral reefs after El Niño: Chagos reefs, Indian Ocean. Ambio, 2002. 31(1): p. 40-8.

Roberts, C.M., et al., Marine biodiversity hotspots and conservation priorities for tropical reefs. Science, 2002. 295: p. 1280-4.

Burke, L., L. Selig, and M. Spalding, Reefs at Risk in Southeast Asia. 2002, Washington, DC: World Resources Institute. 72.

Spalding, M.D., K.A. Teleki, and T. Spencer, Climate change and coral bleaching, in The Impacts of Climate Change on Wildlife, R. Green, et al., Editors. 2001, Royal Society for the Protection of Birds: Sandy, UK. p. 40-41.

Spalding, M.D., C. Ravilious, and E.P. Green, World Atlas of Coral Reefs. 2001, Berkeley, California: University of California Press. 424.

Spalding, M.D. and J.M. Kemp, Patterns of biodiversity in coral reefs at intermediate scales: implications for conservation. 2001.

Spalding, M.D., Changes in marine and coastal areas, in The Impacts of Climate Change on Wildlife, R. Green, et al., Editors. 2001, Royal Society for the Protection of Birds: Sandy, UK. p. 32-33.

Spalding, M.D., Mangroves, in Encyclopedia of Ocean Sciences, J.H. Steele, K.K. Turekian, and S.A. Thorpe, Editors. 2001, Academic Press: California. p. 1533-1542.

Green, R., et al., The Impacts of Climate Change on Wildlife. 2001, Sandy, UK: Royal Society for the Protection of Birds.

Burke, L., et al., Pilot Analysis of Global Ecosystems: Coastal ecosystems. 2001, Washington, D.C.: World Resources Institute. 94.

Spencer, T., et al., Coral bleaching in the Southern Seychelles during the 1997-1998 Indian Ocean warm event. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 2000. 40(7): p. 569-86.

Spalding, M.D., Making large marine environmental datasets available in a useful format for decision-makers, in Proceedings of the UNEP/AIMS meeting in Townsville Dec 1999, T. Done, Editor. 2000.

Spalding, M.D., The Status of Commercially Important Reef Fishes of the Chagos Archipelago: a report for the British Indian Ocean Territories Administration, Foreign and Commonwealth Office. 2000: London. p. 42.

Spalding, M.D. and P. Phillips, Mangroves and Seagrasses of the Indian Ocean. 1999.

Spalding, M.D., Biodiversity patterns in Chagos reef fishes, in Ecology of the Chagos Archipelago, C.R.C. Sheppard and M.R.D. Seaward, Editors. 1999, Published for the Linnean Society of London, by Westbury Publishing: London. p. 119-136.

Spalding, M.D., Biodiversity Patterns in Coral Reefs and Mangrove Forests: global and local scales. 1998, PhD Thesis. University of Cambridge. p. 397.

Bryant, D., et al., Reefs at Risk: a map-based indicator of threats to the world's coral reefs. 1998, Washington, D.C.: World Resources Institute, International Center for Living Aquatic Resources Management, World Conservation Monitoring Centre and United Nations Environment Programme. 56.

Anderson, R.C., et al., Shortage of Sharks at Chagos. Shark News, newsletter of the IUCN Shark Specialist Group, 1998. 10: p. 1-3.

Spalding, M.D. and A.M. Grenfell, New estimates of global and regional coral reef areas. Coral Reefs, 1997. 16: p. 225-30.

Spalding, M.D., F. Blasco, and C.D. Field, World Mangrove Atlas. 1997, Okinawa, Japan: International Society for Mangrove Ecosystems. 178.

Spalding, M.D., Mapping global coral reef distribution. Proceedings of the Eighth International Coral Reef Symposium, Panama, 1997. 2: p. 1555-60.

Spalding, M.D., The global distribution and status of mangrove ecosystems. Intercoast Network, 1997. 1 (Spec. Ed.): p. 20-1.