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Professor Nick Davies FRS

Professor Nick Davies, FRS

Professor of Behavioural Ecology

Nick Davies is interested in taking PhD students.

Room F22
Office Phone: 01223 (3)34405

Biography:

D.Phil. Oxford 1976.

1976-79. Demonstrator in Zoology, University of Oxford, and Junior Research Fellow of Wolfson College (1977-9).

Since 1979, Zoology Dept. Cambridge and Fellow of Pembroke College.

Research Themes

Behavioural Ecology:
All Principal Investigators:

Behavioural ecology

Research Interests

My research is in Behavioural Ecology, the study of how behaviour evolves in response to selection pressures from ecology and the social environment. My past studies include: territory economics in pied wagtails; contest behaviour and mate searching in butterflies and toads; parent-offspring conflict and the transition to independence in young birds; sexual conflict and mating systems in dunnocks and alpine accentors.

My current work focusses on the interactions between cuckoos and their hosts, including: how cuckoos trick their hosts and how the hosts defend themselves against cuckoo parasitism; how cuckoo trickery and host defences co-evolve; how cuckoo chicks manipulate hosts when they beg for food; how hosts vary their costly defences in response to levels of parasitism, by both individual and social learning.

I encourage PhD students and post-docs to come up with their own ideas for research. Recent topics include: deceptive signalling by drongos; parental care in hornbills; cooperative breeding in Australian babblers; sexual selection in tooth-billed bowerbirds; cuckoo-host coevolution.

Acrocephalus
Illustrations by David Quinn, from Cuckoos, Cowbirds and Other Cheats
Dunnocks
Illustrations by David Quinn, from Dunnock Behaviour and Social Evolution

Key Publications

Books
Some books by Nick Davies

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  • Thorogood, R and Davies, N.B. 2013. Reed warbler hosts fine-tune their defenses to track three decades of cuckoo decline. Evolution, 67, 3545-3555. doi:10.1111/evo.12213.
  • Thorogood, R. & Davies, N.B. 2012. Cuckoos combat socially transmitted defences of reed warbler hosts with a plumage polymorphism. Science, 337, 578- 580.
  • Davies, N.B., Krebs, J.R. & West, S.A. 2012. An Introduction to Behavioural Ecology, Fourth edition. Wiley-Blackwell.
  • Davies, N.B. 2011. Cuckoo adaptations: trickery and tuning. J.Zool. 284, 1-14
  • Davies, N.B. & Welbergen, J.A. 2009 Social transmission of a host defense against cuckoo parasitism. Science 324, 1318-1320.
  • Welbergen, J.A. & Davies, N.B. 2009. Strategic variation in mobbing as a front line of defense against brood parasitism. Current Biology 19, 235-240.
  • Davies, N.B., Madden, J.R., Butchart, S.H.M. & Rutila, J. 2006. A host-race of the cuckoo Cuculus canorus with nestlings attuned to the parental alarm calls of the host species. Proceedings of the Royal Society, B: 273: 693-699.
  • Gibbs, H.L., Sorenson, M.D., Marchetti, K., Brooke, M. de L., Davies, N.B. & Nakamura, H. 2000. Genetic evidence for female host-specific races of the common cuckoo. Nature 407, 183-186
  • Davies, N.B. 2000. Cuckoos, Cowbirds and Other Cheats. pp.310. T. & A.D. Poyser.
  • Kilner, R.M., Noble, D.G. & Davies, N.B. 1999. Signals of need in parent-offspring communication and their exploitation by the common cuckoo. Nature, 397: 667-672.
  • Davies, N.B., Hatchwell, B.J., Robson, T. & Burke, T. 1992. Paternity and parental effort in dunnocks, Prunella modularis: how good are male chick-feeding rules? Animal Behaviour: 43, 729-745.
  • Davies, N.B. 1992. Dunnock Behaviour and Social Evolution. Oxford University Press.

Other Publications

1. Davies, N.B. 1976. Food, flocking and territorial behaviour of the pied wagtail (Motacilla alba Yarrellii) in winter. Journal of Animal Ecology 45: 235-253.

2. Davies, N.B. 1976. Parental care and the transition to independent feeding in the young spotted flycatcher, Muscicapa striata. Behaviour 59: 280-295.

3. Davies, N.B. and Green, R.E. 1976. The development and ecological significance of feeding techniques in the reed warbler, Acrocephalus scirpaceus. Animal Behaviour 24: 213-229.

4. Davies, N.B. 1977. Prey selection and social behaviour in wagtails. (Aves: Motacillidae). Journal of Animal Ecology 46: 37-57.

5. Davies, N.B. 1977. Prey selection and the search strategy of the spotted flycatcher, Muscicapa striata: a field study on optimal foraging. Animal Behaviour 25: 1016-1033.

6. Davies, N.B. and Halliday, T.R. 1977. Optimal mate selection in the toad, Bufo bufo. Nature 269: 56-58.

7. Davies, N.B. 1978. Territorial defence in the speckled wood butterfly, Pararge aegeria: the resident always wins. Animal Behaviour 26: 138-147.

8. Davies, N.B. 1978. Parental meanness and offspring independence: an experiment with hand-reared great tits, Parus major. Ibis 120: 509-514.

9. Davies, N.B. and Halliday, T.R. 1978. Deep croaks and fighting assessment in toads, Bufo bufo. Nature 274: 683-685.

10. Krebs, J.R. and Davies, N.B. (eds.) 1978. Behavioural Ecology: an Evolutionary approach. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford.

11. Davies, N.B. 1978. Ecological questions about territorial behaviour. pp. 317-350 in (10) above.

12. Davies, N.B. and Krebs, J.R. 1978. Ecology, natural selection and social behaviour. pp. 1-18 in (10) above.

13. Davies, N.B. and Halliday, T.R. 1979. Competitive mate searching in male common toads, Bufo bufo. Animal Behaviour 27: 1253-1267.

14. Davies, N.B. 1979. Game theory and territorial behaviour in speckled wood butterflies. Animal Behaviour 27: 961-962.

15. Davies, N.B. 1980. The economics of territorial behaviour in birds. Ardea 68: 63-74.

16. Krebs, J.R. and Davies, N.B. 1981. An Introduction to Behavioural Ecology. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford. pp. x + 292.

17. Davies, N.B. 1981. Territory. In: The Oxford Companion to Animal Behaviour, ed. McFarland, D.pp. 550-556. Oxford University Press.

18. Davies, N.B. and Houston, A.I. 1981. Owners and satellites: the economics of territory defence in the pied wagtail. Journal of Animal Ecology 50: 157-180.

19. Davies, N.B. 1981. Calling as an ownership convention on pied wagtail territories. Animal Behaviour 29: 529-534.

20. Davies, N.B. 1982. Cooperation and conflict in breeding groups. Nature (News and Views article) 296, 702-703.

21. Davies, N.B. 1982. Territorial behaviour of pied wagtails in winter. British Birds 75, 261-267.

22. Davies, N.B. 1982. Behaviour and competition for scarce resources. In: Current problems in sociobiology, pp. 363-380. (Ed. King's College Sociobiology group, Cambridge University Press).

23. Davies, N.B. 1983. Aerial acrobat. Birds 9(5), 34-36.

24. Davies, N.B. and Houston, A.I. 1983. Time allocation between territories and flocks and owner-satellite conflict in foraging pied wagtails. Journal of Animal Ecology 52, 621-634.

25. Davies, N.B. 1983. Polyandry, cloaca-pecking and sperm competition in dunnocks. Nature 302, 334-336.

26. Krebs, J.R. and Davies, N.B. (eds.) 1984. Behavioural Ecology: An Evolutionary Approach. 2nd edition. Blackwell Scientific Publication.

27. Davies, N.B. and Houston, A.I. 1984. Territory economics (in (26) above).

28. Davies, N.B. and Lundberg, A. 1984. Food distribution and a variable mating system in the dunnock, Prunella modularis. Journal of Animal Ecology 53, 895-912.

29. Davies, N.B. and Lundberg, A. 1985. The influence of food on time budgets and timing of breeding in the dunnock, Prunella modularis. Ibis 127, 100-110.

30. Houston, A.I., McCleery, R.H. and Davies, N.B. 1985. Territory size, prey renewal and feeding rates: interpretation of observations on the pied wagtail (Motacilla alba) by simulation. Journal of Animal Ecology 54, 227-239.

31. Davies, N.B. 1985. Cooperation and conflict among dunnocks, Prunella modularis, in a variable mating system. Animal Behaviour 33, 628-648.

32. Houston, A.I. and Davies, N.B. 1985. Evolution of cooperation and life history in dunnocks, Prunella modularis. In Behavioural Ecology: (Ed. by R.Sibly and R.H.Smith). pp. 471-487. British Ecological Society Symposium. Blackwell Scientific Publication, Oxford.

33. Davies, N.B. 1986. Reproductive success of dunnocks, Prunella modularis, in a variable mating system. I. Factors influencing provisioning rate, nestling weight and fledging success. Journal of Animal Ecology 55, 123-138.

34. Davies, N.B. and Houston, A.I. 1986. Reproductive success of dunnocks, Prunella modularis, in a variable mating system. II. Conflicts of interest among breeding adults. Journal of Animal Ecology 55, 139-154.

35. Krebs, J.R. and Davies, N.B. 1987. An Introduction to Behavioural Ecology. 2nd edition. Blackwell Scientific Publication, Oxford.

36. Davies, N.B. 1987. Studies of West Palearctic birds: Dunnock, Prunella modularis. British Birds 80, 604-624.

37. Bradbury, J.W. & Davies, N.B. 1987. Relative roles of intra- and intersexual selection. In Sexual Selection: Testing the Alternatives (ed. by J. W. Bradbury & M. Andersson). pp 143-163. Dahlem Konferenzen, Wiley.

38. Brooke, M. de L. & Davies, N.B. 1987. Recent changes in host usage by cuckoos Cuculus canorus in Britain. Journal of Animal Ecology 56, 873-883.

39. Davies, N.B. & Brooke, M. de L. 1988. Cuckoos versus reed warblers: adaptations and counteradaptations. Animal Behaviour 36, 262-284.

40. Davies, N.B. 1988. Dumping eggs on conspecifics. Nature (News and Views article) 331, 19.

41. Brooke, M. de L. & Davies, N.B. 1988. Egg mimicry by cuckoos Cuculus canorus in relation to discrimination by hosts. Nature 335, 630-632.

42. Davies, N.B. & Brooke, M. de L. 1989. An experimental study of co-evolution between the cuckoo Cuculus canorus and its hosts. I. Host egg discrimination. Journal of Animal Ecology 58, 207-224.

43. Davies, N.B. & Brooke, M. de L. 1989. An experimental study of co-evolution between the cuckoo Cuculus canorus and its hosts. II. Host egg markings, chick discrimination and general discussion. Journal of Animal Ecology 58, 225-236.

44. Brooke, M. de L. & Davies, N.B. 1989. Provisioning of nestling cuckoos Cuculus canorus by reed warbler Acrocephalus scirpaceus hosts. Ibis 131, 250-256.

45. Davies, N.B. 1989. Sexual conflict and the polygamy threshold. Animal Behaviour 38, 226-234.

46. Burke, T., Davies, N.B., Bruford, M.W. & Hatchwell, B.J. 1989. Parental care and mating behaviour of polyandrous dunnocks Prunella modularis related to paternity by DNA fingerprinting. Nature 338, 249-251.

47. Davies, N.B., Bourke, A.F.G. & Brooke, M. de L. 1989. Cuckoos and parasitic ants: interspecific brood parasitism as an evolutionary arms race. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 4, 274-278.

48. Davies, N.B. 1990. Dunnocks: cooperation and conflict among males and females in a variable mating system. pp. 457-485. In: Cooperative Breeding In Birds. Eds P.B. Stacey & W.D. Koenig. Cambridge University Press.

49. Hatchwell, B.J. & Davies, N.B. 1990. Provisioning of nestlings by dunnocks Prunella modularis in pairs and trios: Compensation reactions by males and females. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 27, 199-209.

50. Brown, R.J., Brown, M.N., Brooke, M. de L. & Davies, N.B. 1990. Reactions of parasitized and unparasitized populations of Acrocephalus warblers to model cuckoo eggs. Ibis 132, 109-111.

51. Davies, N.B. & Brooke, M. de L. 1991. Co-evolution of the cuckoo and its hosts. Scientific American. 264(1), 92-98.

52. Davies, N.B. 1991. Mating systems. In: Behavioural Ecology: An Evolutionary Approach. 3rd edition (Eds J.R. Krebs & N.B. Davies). pp. 263-294. Blackwell Scientific Publications.

53. Krebs, J.R. & Davies, N.B. (eds) 1991 Behavioural Ecology : an evolutionary approach. (3rd edition). Blackwell Scientific Publications.

54. Birkhead, T.R., Hatchwell, B.J. & Davies, N.B. 1991. Sperm competition and the reproductive organs of the male and female dunnock Prunella modularis. Ibis 133: 306-311.

55. Davies, N.B. 1991. Studying behavioural adaptations. In. The Tinbergen Legacy (ed. M. Dawkins, T.R. Halliday, & R., Dawkins). Chapman & Hall. p. 18-30.

56. Wiley, R.H., Hatchwell, B.J. & Davies, N.B. 1991. Recognition of individual males' songs by female dunnocks : a mechanism increasing the number of copulatory partners and reproductive success. Ethology 88, 145-153.

57. Brooke, M. de L. & Davies, N.B. 1991. A failure to demonstrate host imprinting in the cuckoo Cuculus canorus and alternative hypotheses for the maintenance of egg mimicry. Ethology 89, 154-166.

58. Hatchwell, B.J. & Davies, N.B. 1992. An experimental study of mating competition in monogamous and polyandrous dunnocks; Prunella modularis. I. Mate guarding and copulations. Animal Behaviour. 43, 595-609.

59. Hatchwell, B.J. & Davies, N.B. 1992. An experimental study of mating competition in monogamous and polyandrous dunnocks, Prunella modularis. II Influence of removal and replacement on mating systems. Animal Behaviour. 43, 611-622.

60. Davies, N.B. & Hatchwell, B.J. 1992. The value of male parental care and its influence on reproductive allocation by male and female dunnocks, Prunella modularis. Journal of Animal Ecology. 61, 259-272.

61. Davies, N.B., Hatchwell, B.J., Robson, T. & Burke, T. 1992. Paternity and parental effort in dunnocks Prunella modularis: how good are male chick-feeding rules? Animal Behaviour. 43, 729-745.

62. Davies, N.B. 1992. Dunnock Behaviour and Social Evolution. Oxford University Press, pp. xiv + 272.

63. Krebs, J.R. & Davies, N.B. 1993. An Introduction to Behavioural Ecology. 3rd edition, Blackwell Scientific Publications.

64. Hartley, I.R. & Davies, N.B. 1994. Limits to cooperative polyandry in birds. Proceedings of the Royal Society, B. 257, 67-73

65. Davies, N.B. 1995. Backyard battle of the sexes. Natural History, 104, 68-73.

66. Davies, N.B., Hartley, I.R., Hatchwell, B.J., Desrochers, A., Skeer, J. & Nebel, D. 1995. The polygynandrous mating system of the alpine accentor Prunella collaris. I. Ecological causes and reproductive conflicts. Animal Behaviour, 49, 769-788.

67. Hartley, I.R., Davies, N.B., Hatchwell, B.J., Desrochers, A., Nebel, D. & Burke, T. 1995. The polygynandrous mating system of the alpine accentor Prunella collaris. II. Multiple paternity and parental effort. Animal Behaviour, 49, 789-803.

68. Davies, N.B., Hartley, I.R., Hatchwell, B.J. & Langmore, N.E. 1996. Female control of copulations to maximize male help : a comparison of polygynandrous dunnocks Prunella modularis and alpine accentors Prunella collaris. Animal Behaviour, 51, 27-47.

69. Gibbs, H.L., Brooke, M. de L. & Davies, N.B. 1996. Analysis of genetic differentiation of host races of the common cuckoo Cuculus canorus using mitochondrial and microsatellite DNA variation. Proceedings of the Royal Society, B, 263, 89-96.

70. Langmore, N.E., Davies, N.B., Hatchwell, B.J. & Hartley, I.R. 1996. Female song attracts males in the alpine accentor Prunella collaris. Proceedings of the Royal Society, B, 263, 141-146.

71. Davies, N.B. & Brooke, M. de L. & Kacelnik, A. 1996. Recognition errors and probability of parasitism determine whether reed warblers should accept or reject mimetic cukoo eggs. Proceedings of the Royal Society, B, 263, 925-931.

72. Davies, N.B. & Hartley, I.R. 1996. Food patchiness, territory overlap and social systems: an experiment with dunnocks, Prunella modularis. Journal of Animal Ecology, 65, 837-846.

73. Langmore, N.E. & Davies, N.B. 1997. Female dunnocks use vocalizations to compete for males. Animal Behaviour, 53, 881-890.

74. Krebs, J.R. & Davies, N.B. (eds) 1997. Behavioural ecology : an evolutionary approach (fourth edition), Blackwell Science.

75. Krebs, J.R. & Davies, N.B. 1997. The evolution of behavioural ecology. In: Behavioural ecology : an evolutionary approach (fourth edition), pp. 3-12. Blackwell Science.

76. Davies, N.B. & Brooke, M. de L. 1997. Cuckoos and reed warblers. In: Wicken Fen : The Making of a Wetland Nature Reserve. edited by L. Friday. pp. 165-172. Harley Books, Colchester.

77. Davies, N.B., Kilner, R.M. & Noble, D.G. 1998. Nestling cuckoos Cuculus canorus exploit hosts with begging calls that mimic a brood. Proceedings of the Royal Society, B. 265, 673-678.

78. Kilner, R.M. & Davies, N.B. 1998. Nestling mouth colour : ecological correlates of a begging signal. Animal Behaviour, 56, 705-712.

79. Davies, N.B. & Brooke, M. de L. 1998. Cuckoos versus hosts : experimental evidence for co-evolution. pp. 59-79 In: Parasitic Birds and their Hosts : Studies in Coevolution. ed. S.I. Rothstein & S.K. Robinson. Oxford University Press.

80. Brooke, M. de L., Davies, N.B. & Noble, D.G. 1998. Rapid decline of host defences in response to reduced cuckoo parasitism : behavioural flexibility of reed warblers in a changing world. Proceedings of the Royal Society, B, 265, 1277-1282.

81. Kilner, R.M., Noble, D.G. & Davies, N.B. 1999. Signals of need in parent-offspring communication and their exploitation by the common cuckoo. Nature 397, 667-672.

82. Davies, N.B. 1999. Cuckoos and cowbirds versus hosts : coevolutionary lag and equilibrium. Plenary lecture to International Ornithological Congress, Durban. Ostrich, 70, 71-79.

83. Kilner, R.M. & Davies, N.B. 1999. How selfish is a cuckoo chick? Animal Behaviour 58, 797-808.

84. Noble, D.G., Davies, N.B., Hartley, I.R. & McRae, S.B. 1999. The red gape of the nestling cuckoo Cuculus canorus is not a supernormal stimulus for three common hosts. Behaviour 136, 759-77.

85. Kilner, R.M., Noble, D.G. & Davies, N.B. 1999. How should cuckoo chicks signal in different host nests? Trends in Ecology and Evolution 14, 322.

86. Davies, N.B. 2000. Cuckoos, Cowbirds and Other Cheats. pp.310. T. & A.D. Poyser.

87. Davies, N.B. 2000. Multi-male breeding groups in birds : ecological causes and social conflicts. pp. 11-20. In: Primate Males. ed. P. Kappeler. Cambridge University Press.

88. Gibbs, H.L., Sorenson, M.D., Marchetti, K., Brooke, M. de L., Davies, N.B. & Nakamura, H. 2000. Genetic evidence for female host-specific races of the common cuckoo. Nature 407, 183-186.

89. Krüger, O. & Davies, N.B. 2002. The evolution of cuckoo parasitism : a comparative analysis. Proceedings of the Royal Society, B; 269, 375-381.

90. Davies, N.B. 2002. Cuckoo tricks with eggs and chicks. British Birds 95, 101-115.

91. Butchart, S.H.M., Kilner, R.M., Fuisz, T. & Davies, N.B. 2003. Differences in the nestling begging calls of hosts and host-races of the common cuckoo Cuculus canorus. Animal Behaviour 65.

92. Davies, N.B., Butchart, S.H.M., Burke, T.A., Chaline, N. & Stewart, I.R.K. 2003. Reed warblers guard against cuckoos and cuckoldry. Animal Behaviour 65. 285-295.

93. Krüger, O. & Davies, N.B. 2004 The evolution of egg size in the brood parasitic cuckoos. Behavioral Ecology 15: 210-218.

94. Davies, N.B., Madden, J.R. & Butchart, S.H.M. 2004. Learning fine-tunes a specific response of nestlings to the parental alarms of their own species. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B 271: 2297-2304.

95. Davies, N.B. 2004. Mating systems: interview. In: Principles of Animal Behaviour by L.A. Dugatkin, p. 247-249. Norton.

96. Langmore, N.E., Kilner, R.M., Butchart, S.H.M., Maurer, G., Davies, N.B., Cockburn, A., Macgregor, N.A., Peters, A., Magrath, M.J.L. & Dowling, D.K. 2005. The evolution of egg rejection by cuckoo hosts in Australia and Europe. Behavioral Ecology 16: 686-692.

97. Madden, J.R., Kilner, R.M. & Davies, N.B. 2005a. Nestling responses to adult food and alarm calls. I. Species specific responses in two cowbird hosts. Animal Behaviour 70: 619-627.

98. Madden, J.R., Kilner, R.M. & Davies, N.B. 2005b. Nestling responses to adult food and alarm calls. II. Cowbirds and red-winged blackbirds raised by eastern phoebe hosts. Animal Behaviour 70: 629-637.

99. Davies, N.B., Madden, J.R., Butchart, S.H.M. & Rutila, J. 2006. A host-race of the cuckoo Cuculus canorus with nestlings attuned to the parental alarm calls of the host species. Proceedings of the Royal Society, B: 273: 693-699.

100. Madden, J.R. & Davies, N.B. 2006. A host-race difference in begging calls of nestling cuckoos Cuculus canorus develops through experience and increases host provisioning. Proceedings of the Royal Society, B: 273: 2343-235.

101. Davies, N.B. 2007. Cuckoos (Quick guide). Current Biology 17: R346-R348.

102. Krüger, O., Davies, N.B. & Sorenson, M.D. 2007. The evolution fo sexual dimorphism in parasitic cuckoos: sexual selection or co-evolution? Proceedings of the Royal Society, B 274: 1553-1560.

103. Welbergen, J.A. & Davies, N.B. 2008. Reed warblers discriminate cuckoos from sparrowhawks with graded alarm signals that attract mates and neighbours. Animal Behaviour 76: 811-822.

104. Davies, N.B. & Welbergen, J.A. 2008. Cuckoo-hawk mimicry? An experimental test. Proceedings of the Royal Society, B 275: 1817-1822.

105. Welbergen, J.A. & Davies, N.B. 2009. Strategic variation in mobbing as a front line of defense against brood parasitism. Current Biology 19, 235-240.

106. Davies, N.B. & Welbergen, J.A. 2009 Social transmission of a host defense against cuckoo parasitism. Science 324, 1318-1320.

107. Krüger, O., Sorenson, M.D. & Davies, N.B. 2009. Does coevolution promote species richness in parasitic cuckoos? Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B 276: 3871-3879.

108. Davies, N.B. 2010. Birds, butterflies and behavioural ecology. In: Leaders in Animal Behavior: The Second Generation. pp. 143-164. Edited by L.C. Drickamer & D. Dewsbury. Cambridge University Press.

109. Davies, N.B. 2010 Mating systems: integrating sexual conflict and ecology. In: Social Behaviour: Genes, Ecology and Evolution. Ed. T. Szekely, A.J. Moore and J. Komdeur. pp 55-58. Cambridge Univ. Press

110. Welbergen,J.A. & Davies,N.B. 2011. A parasite in wolf's clothing: hawk mimicry reduces mobbing of cuckoos by hosts. Behav. Ecol. 22, 574-579.

111. Davies, N.B. 2011. Cuckoo adaptations: trickery and tuning. J.Zool. 284, 1-14.

112. Davies, N.B., Krebs, J.R. & West, S.A. 2012. An Introduction to Behavioural Ecology, Fourth edition. Wiley-Blackwell.

113. Welbergen, J.A. & Davies, N.B. 2012. Direct and indirect assessment of parasitism risk by a cuckoo host. Behavioural Ecology, 23, 783- 789.

114. Thorogood, R. & Davies, N.B. 2012. Cuckoos combat socially transmitted defences of reed warbler hosts with a plumage polymorphism. Science, 337, 578- 580.

115. Spottiswoode, C.N., Kilner, R.M. & Davies, N.B. 2012. Brood Parasitism. In:The Evolution of Parental Care. Ed. N.J. Royle, P.T. Smiseth and M. Kölliker. Oxford University Press.

116. Thorogood, R. & Davies, N.B. 2013. Hawk mimicry and the evolution of polymorphic cuckoos. Chinese Birds, 4, 39-50.

117. Thorogood, R and Davies, N.B. 2013. Reed warbler hosts fine-tune their defenses to track three decades of cuckoo decline. Evolution, 67, 3545-3555. doi:10.1111/evo.12213.