skip to primary navigationskip to content
 

Professor William Sutherland

Professor William Sutherland

Miriam Rothschild Professor of Conservation Biology

William Sutherland is interested in taking PhD students.

Room 422 Austin Building
Office Phone: 01223 (3)36686

Research Themes

Conservation Science:
All Principal Investigators:

Conservation biology

Research Interests

I am interested in applying ecological data and models to understand conservation problems. This may involve field work, use of existing data or purely theoretical problems. I am especially interested in bird population ecology as well as the impacts of agriculture of biodiversity.

I have recently become intrigued by understanding how decisions are made. This has involved horizon scanning to identify future issues, collation of evidence to determine which interventions are effective and then a rigorous means of weighting the evidence to guide policy and practice.

Key Publications

Dicks, L.V., Hodge, I., Randall, N., Scharlemann, J.P.W., Siriwardena, G.M., Smith, H.G., Smith, R.K., Sutherland, W.J. (online early) A transparent process for ‘evidence‐informed’policy making. Conservation Letters

Amano, T. & Sutherland, W .J. (2013). Four barriers to the global understanding of biodiversity conservation: wealth, language, geographical location and security Proceedings B 280, 1756

Williams, D.R. Pople, R.G., Showler, D.A., Dicks, L.V., Child, M.F., zu Ermgassen, E.K.H.J. & Sutherland, W.J.  (2013) Bird Conservation - evidence for the effects of interventions. Pelagic Publishing.

Sutherland, W. J., Bardsley, S., Clout, M., Depledge, M. H., Dicks, L. V., Fellman, L., Fleishman, E., Gibbons, D. W., Keim, B., Lickorish, F., Margerison, C., Monk, K. A., Norris, K., Peck, L.S., Prior, S. V., Scharlemann, J. P. W., Spalding, M.D. and Watkinson, A. R (2013) A Horizon Scan of Global Conservation Issues for 2013. Trends in Ecology & Evolution. 28, 16-22.

Alves, J.A., Gunnarsson, T.G., Hayhow, D.B., Appleton, G.F., Potts, P.M., Sutherland, W.J., Gill, J.A. (2013). Costs, benefits and fitness consequences of different migratory strategies. Ecology.94, 11-17.

Gunnarsson, G.T.  Sutherland, W.J., Alves, J.A. Potts, P.M. & Gill, J.A. (2012) Rapid changes in phenotype distribution during range expansion in a migratory bird. Proc Roy Soc B. 279, 411-416  

Sutherland, W.J. & Freckleton, R.P. (2012) Making predictive ecology more relevant to policy makers and practitioners. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, 367, 322-330.

Sutherland, W.J., Goulson, D., Potts, S.G. & Dicks, L.V. (2011). Quantifying the impact and relevance of scientific research. PLoS ONE 6(11):e27537.doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0027537.

Catry, I., Amano, T. Franco, A.M.A. & Sutherland, W.J. (2011) Influence of spatial and temporal dynamics of agricultural practices on the globally endangered lesser kestrel. Journal of Applied Ecology, 144, 1111-1119.

Sandel, B., Arge, L., Dalsgaard, B., Davies, R.G., Gaston, K.J., Sutherland, W.J. & Svenning, J.-C. (2011) The influence of late quaternary climate-change velocity on species endemism. Science, 334, 660-664.

Rands, M. R. W, Adams, W. M., Bennun, L., Butchart, S. H. M.,  Clements, A., Coomes, D., Entwistle, A., Hodge, I., Kapos, V., Scharlemann, J. P. W., Sutherland, W. J. & Vira, B. (2010)  Biodiversity Conservation Beyond 2010. Science, 329, 1298-1303.

Amano, T., Smithers, R.J. Sparks, T.H. & Sutherland, W.J. (2010). A 250-year index of first flowering dates and its response to temperature changes. Proceedings B Royal Society 277, 2451-2457.

Other Publications

Smith, R.K. & Sutherland, W.J. (in press). Amphibian Conservation: evidence for effectiveness of interventions. Pelagic Publishing

Sutherland, W.J., Gardner, T., Bogich, T., Bradbury, R., Clothier, B.,  Jonsson, M., Kapos, V., Lane, S., Moller, I., Spalding, M.,  Spencer, T., White, P. & Dicks, L.V. (in press) Solution scanning as a key policy tool: identifying management interventions to help maintain and enhance regulating ecosystem services Ecology and Society

Sutherland, W.J., Goulden, C.,  Bell, K., Bennett, F., Burrall, S.,  Bush, M.,  Callan, S., Catcheside, K., Corner, J.,  D’Arcy, C.T., Dickson, M., Dolan, J.A., Doubleday, R., Eckley, B.J., Foreman, E.T., Foster, R., Gilhooly, L., Gray, A-M., Hall, A.C.,  Harmer, M., Hastings, A., Johnes, C., Johnstone, M., Kelly, P., Kenway, P., Lee, N., Moore, R., Ouchikh, J., Plunkett, J., Rowlingson, K., Scott Paul, A., Sefton, T.A.J.,  Shaheen, F., Sodha, S., Stearn, J., Stewart, K., Stone, E., Tinsley, M., Tomsett, R.J., Tyrer, P., Unwin, J., Wall, D.G., Wollner, P.K.A. (in press). 100 Questions: identifying research priorities for poverty prevention and reduction. Journal of Poverty and Social Justice

Cooke, I.R., Mattison, E.H.A., Audsley, E., Bailey, A.P., Freckleton, R.P., Graves, A.R., Morris, J., Queenborough, S.A., Sandars, D.L., Siriwardena, G.M., Trawick, P., Watkinson, A.R., Sutherland, W.J. (in press). Empirical test of an agricultural landscape model: the importance of farmer preference for risk-aversion and crop complexity. SAGE Open 3,2

Cooke, S.J., Blumstein, D.T., Buchholz, R., Caro, T., Fernández-Juricic, E., Franklin, C.E., Metcalfe, J., O’Connor, C.M., Cassady St. Clair, C., Sutherland, W.J., & Wikelski, M. (in press) Physiology, behaviour and conservation. Physiological and Biochemical Zoology

Dicks, L.V., Hodge, I., Randall, N., Scharlemann, J.P.W., Siriwardena, G.M., Smith, H.G., Smith, R.K., Sutherland, W.J. (online early) A transparent process for ‘evidence‐informed’policy making. Conservation Letters

Dalsgaard, B., Trøjelsgaard, K., González, A.M.M., Nogués‐Bravo, D., Ollerton, J., Petanidou, T., Sandel, B., Schleuning, M., Wang, Z.,  Carsten Rahbek, C., Sutherland, W.J., Svenning, J-C. & Olesen, J.M. (online early) Historical climate-change influences modularity of pollination networks Ecography,

Carstensen, D.W., Dalsgaard, B., Svenning, J.C., Rahbek, C., Fjeldså, J., Sutherland, W.J. & Olesen, J.M. (2013) The functional biogeography of species: biogeographical species roles of birds in Wallacea and the West Indies. Ecography. 36, 1097–1105

Ingram, J.S. I., Wright, H.L., Foster, L., Aldred, T., Barling, D., Benton, T.G., Berryman, P.M., Bestwick, C.S., Bows-Larkin, A., Brocklehurst, T.F., Buttriss, J., Casey, J., Collins, H., Crossley, D.S., Dolan, C.S., Dowler, E., Edwards, R., Finney, K.J., Fitzpatrick, J.L., Fowler, M., Garrett, D.A., Godfrey, J.E., Godley, A., Griffiths, W., Houlston, E.J., Kaiser, M.J., Kennard, R., Knox, J.W., Kuyk, A., Linter, B.R., Macdiarmid, J.I., Martindale, W., Mathers, J.C., McGonigle, D.F., Mead, A., Millar, S.J., Miller, A., Murray, C.,  Norton, I.T., Parry, S., Pollicino, M.,  Quested, T.E., Tassou, S., Terry, L.A., Tiffin, R.,  van de Graaf, P., Vorley, W., Westby, A. & Sutherland, W.J. (2013). Priority research questions for the UK food system. Food Security 5, 617-636.

Dicks, L.V., Bardgett, R.D., Bell, J., Benton, T.G.,  Booth, A., Bouwman, J., Brown, C., Bruce, A., Burgess, P.J., Butler, S.J., Crute, I., Dixon, F., Drummond, C., Freckleton, R.P., Gill, M., Graham, A., Hails, R.S., Hallett, J.,  Hart, B., Hillier, J.G., Holland, J.M., Huxley, J.N., Ingram,J.S.I., King, V., Macmillan, T., McGonigle, D.F., McQuaid, C., Nevard, T., Norman,S., Norris, K., Pazderka, C., Poonaji, I., Quinn, C.H., Ramsden,S.J., Sinclair, D., Siriwardena, G.M., Vickery, J.A., Whitmore,A.P., Wolmer, W., Sutherland, W.J. (2013) What do we need to know to enhance the environmental sustainability of agriculture? A prioritisation of knowledge needs for the UK food system. Sustainability 5, 3095-3115

Tratalos, J.A., Sugden, R., Bateman, I.J., Gill, J.A., Jones, A.P., Showler, D.A., Sutherland, W.J. & Watkinson, A.R. (2013) The Conflict Between Conservation and Recreation When Visitors Dislike Crowding: A Theoretical and Empirical Analysis of the Spatial Distribution of Recreational Beach Users.  Environmental and Resource Economics, 1-19

Lin, L. & Sutherland, W.J (2013) Color and degree of interspecific synchrony of environmental noise affect the variability of complex ecological networks. Ecological Modelling 263, 162– 173

Amano, T. & Sutherland, W .J. (2013). Four barriers to the global understanding of biodiversity conservation: wealth, language, geographical location and security Proceedings B 280, 1756

Alves, J.A., Gunnarsson, T.G., Potts, P.M., Sutherland, W.J., Gill, J.A. (2013). Sex-biases in distribution and resource use at different spatial scales in a migratory shorebird. Ecology and Evolution 3, 1079–1090

Sutherland, W.J. Clements, A., Harper, M., Herkenrath, P., Margerison, C., Martin, J., Monk, K.A., & Thompson, D.B.A. (2013) What are the forthcoming legislative issues of interest to ecologists and conservationists in 2013? British Ecological Society Bulletin 44, 38-43.

Williams, D.R. Pople, R.G., Showler, D.A., Dicks, L.V., Child, M.F., zu Ermgassen, E.K.H.J. & Sutherland, W.J.  (2013) Bird Conservation - evidence for the effects of interventions. Pelagic Publishing.

Walzer, C., Kowalczyk, C., Alexander, J.M., Baur, B., Bogliani, G.,  Brun, J.-J., Füreder, L., Guth, M-O., Haller, R., Holderegger, R., Kohler, Y.,  Kueffer, C., Righetti, A., Spaar, R., Sutherland, W.J., Ullrich-Schneider, A., Vanpeene-Bruhier, S.N., & Scheurer, T. (2013). The 50 Most Important Questions Relating to the Maintenance and Restoration of an Ecological Continuum in the European Alps. Plos ONE 8(1): e53139.

Sutherland, W. J., Freckleton, R.P., Godfray, H.C.J., Beissinger, S.R., Benton, T., Cameron, D.D., Carmel, Y., Coomes, D.A., Coulson, T., Emmerson, M.C., Hails, R.S., Hays, G.C., Hodgson, D. J., Hutchings, M. J., Johnson, D., Jones, J. P.G., Keeling, M.J., Kokko, H., Kunin, W.E., Lambin, X., Lewis, O.T., Malhi, Y., Mieszkowska, N., Milner-Gulland, E.J., Norris, K., Phillimore, A.B., Purves, D.W., Reid, J.M., Reuman, D.C., Thompson, K.,Travis, J.M.J., Turnbull, L.A., Wardle, D.A. and Wiegand, T. (2013). Identification of 100 fundamental ecological questions. Journal of Ecology 101,58-67

Sutherland, W. J., Bardsley, S., Clout, M., Depledge, M. H., Dicks, L. V., Fellman, L., Fleishman, E., Gibbons, D. W., Keim, B., Lickorish, F., Margerison, C., Monk, K. A., Norris, K., Peck, L.S., Prior, S. V., Scharlemann, J. P. W., Spalding, M.D. and Watkinson, A. R (2013) A Horizon Scan of Global Conservation Issues for 2013. Trends in Ecology & Evolution. 28, 16-22.

Redpath, S.M., Young, J., Evely, A., Adams, W.M., Sutherland, W.J., Whitehouse, A., Amar,A., Lambert, R., Linnell, J., Watt, A. & Gutièrrez, R.J. (2013) Biodiversity conservation conflicts: a roadmap to resolution.  Understanding and managing biodiversity conflicts?  Trends in Ecology and Evolution.28, 100-109.

Hanson, S., French, J., Spencer, T., Brown, I., Nicholls, R.J., Sutherland, W.J., & Balson, P. (in press) Evaluating broad-scale morphological change in the coastal zone using a behavioural systems approach Broad Scale Coastal Simulation. In: New Techniques to Understand and Manage Shorelines in the Third Millennium (ed Nicholls, Robert J.; Dawson, Richard J.; Day, Sophie A. (Eds.). Springer.

Child, M.F., Peel, M.J.S., Smit, I.P.J. & Sutherland, W.J. (2013) Quantifying the effects of diverse private protected area management systems on ecosystem properties in a Savanna Biome, South Africa. Oryx. 47, 29-40

Alves, J.A., Gunnarsson, T.G., Hayhow, D.B., Appleton, G.F., Potts, P.M., Sutherland, W.J., Gill, J.A. (2013). Costs, benefits and fitness consequences of different migratory strategies. Ecology.94, 11-17.

JA Alves, TG Gunnarsson, DB Hayhow, GF Appleton, PM Potts, WJ Sutherland, Gill, JA .(2013). Energetic treade-offs of black-tailed godwits. Bulletin of the Ecological Society of America 94, 95-99

Pullin, A.S., Sutherland, W.J., Gardner, T., Kapos, V. & Fa, J.E. (2013) Conservation priorities: Identifying need, taking action and evaluating success. In Key Topics in Conservation (ed) D.W. MacDonald. Oxford University Press. 3-22

Dicks L.V., Abrahams A., Atkinson J., Biesmeijer J.C., Bourn N., Brown C., Brown M., Carvell C., Connolly C., Cresswell J., Croft P., Darvill B., de Zylva P., Effingham P., Fountain M., Goggin A., Harding D., Harding T., Hartfield C., Heard M.S., Heathcote R., Heaver D., Holland J., Howe M., Hughes B., Huxley T., Kunin W.E., Little J., Mason C., Memmott J., Osborne J., Pankhurst T., Paxton R.J., Pocock M., Potts S.G., Power E., Raine N. Ranelagh E., Roberts S., Saunders R., Smith K., Smith R.M., Sutton P., Tilley L., Tinsley A., Tonhasca A., Vanbergen A.J., Webster S., Wilson A., Sutherland W.J. (2012) Identifying key knowledge needs for evidence-based conservation of wild insect pollinators: a collaborative cross-sectoral exercise. Insect Conservation and Diversity.

Schleuning, M., J. Fründ, A.-M. Klein, S. Abrahamczyk, R. Alarcón, M. Albrecht, G. Andersson, S. Bazarian, K. Böhning-Gaese, R. Bommarco, B. Dalsgaard, M. Dehling,A. Gotlieb, M. Hagen, T. Hickler, A. Holzschuh, C. Kaiser-Bunbury, R.J. Morris, B. Sandel, W.J. Sutherland, J.-C. Svenning, M. Templin,T. Tscharntke, S. Watts, C. Weiner, M. Werner, N. Williams, C. Winqvist, C. Dormann, N. Blüthgen. (in press) Specialization of mutualistic interaction networks decreases towards tropical latitudes. Current Biology.

Clements, T., Rainey, H.J., An, D., Rours, V., Tan, S., Thong, S., Sutherland, W.J. and Milner-Gulland, E.J. (2013). An evaluation of the effectiveness of a direct payment for biodiversity conservation: the Bird Nest Protection Program in the Northern Plains of Cambodia. Biological Conservation.157,50-59.

Tancell, C., Phillips, R.A., Xavier, J.C., Tarling, G.A. & Sutherland, W.J. (2013) Comparison of methods for determining key marine areas from tracking data. Marine Biology.160,15-26

Catry, I., Franco, A.M.A. & Sutherland, W.J. (in press). Landscape and weather determinants of prey availability: implications for the Lesser Kestrel Falco naumanni. Ibis.

Sutherland W.J, R. P. Freckleton, H.C.J. Godfray, S.R. Beissinger, T. Benton, D.D. Cameron, Y. Carmel, D.A. Coomes, T. Coulson, M.C. Emmerson, R.S. Hails, G. C. Hays, D. J. Hodgson, M. J. Hutchings, D. Johnson, J. P. G. Jones, M. J. Keeling, H. Kokko, W.E. Kunin, X. Lambin, O.T. Lewis, Y. Malhi, N. Mieszkowska, E.J. Milner-Gulland, K. Norris, A. B. Phillimore, D. W. Purves, J. M. Reid, D. C. Reuman, K. Thompson, J.M.J. Travis,  L.A. Turnbull, D.A. Wardle, and T. Wiegand. (in press) Identification of 100 fundamental ecological questions. Journal of Ecology.

Sutherland, W.J., Alves, J.A., Amano, T., Chang, C.H., Davidson, N.C., Finlayson, C.M., Gill, J.A., Gill, R.E., González, P.M., Gunnarsson, T.G., Kleijn, D., Spray, C.J., Székely, T. & Thompson, D.B.A. (2012) A horizon scanning assessment of current and potential future threats facing migratory shorebirds. Ibis. 154, 663-679.

Gunnarsson, G.T.  Sutherland, W.J., Alves, J.A. Potts, P.M. & Gill, J.A. (2012) Rapid changes in phenotype distribution during range expansion in a migratory bird. Proc Roy Soc B. 279, 411-416  

Sandel, B., Arge, L., Dalsgaard, B., Davies, R.G., Gaston, K.J., Sutherland, W.J. & Svenning, J.C. (2012) Global Endemism Needs Spatial Integration. Science 335, 285-286

Alves, J.A., Sutherland, W.J., & Gill, J.A. (2012) Will improving wastewater treatment impact shorebirds? Effects of sewage discharges on estuarine invertebrates and birds. Animal Conservation. 15, 44-52.

Sutherland, W.J., Allison, H., Aveling, R., Bainbridge, I.P., Bennun, L., Bullock, D.J., Clements, A., Crick, H.Q.P., Gibbons, D. W., Smith, S., Rands, M.R.W., Rose, P., Scharlemann, J.P.W. and Warren, M.S. (2012) Enhancing the value of horizon scanning through collaborative review. Oryx. 46,368-374

Sutherland, W.J.Aveling, R.,Bennun, L., Chapman,E.. Clout, M., Côté, I.C.,Depledge, M.H., Dicks, L.V.,Dobson, A.P., Fellman, L., Fleishman, E., Gibbons, D.W., Keim, B.,Lickorish, F.,Lindenmayer, D.B.,Monk, K.A.,Norris, K. Peck, L.S., Prior, S.V., Scharlemann, J.P.W., Spalding, M. & Watkinson, A.R. (2012) A Horizon Scan of Global Conservation Issues for 2012. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 27, 12-18.

Sutherland, W.J., Clements, A., McDevitt, A.-M., Harper, M., Herkenrath, P., Prichard, S., Margerison, C., Monk, K.A. & Thompson, D.B.A.. (2012) What are the forthcoming legislative issues of interest to ecologists and conservationists in 2012? British Ecological Society Bulletin, 43, 12-19.

Sutherland W.J., Mitchell R. & Prior S. V. (2012)  The role of 'Conservation Evidence' in improving conservation management. Conservation Evidence. 9, 1-2

Sutherland, W.J. & Freckleton, R.P. (2012) Making predictive ecology more relevant to policy makers and practitioners. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, 367, 322-330.

Alves, J.A., Gunnarsson, T.G., Potts, P.M., Gélinaud,G.,  Sutherland, W.J. & Gill, J.A. (2012) Overtaking on migration: does longer distance migration always incur a penalty? Oikos 121, 464-470.

Carstensen,D.W. Dalsgaard, B., Svenning, J.C.,  Rahbek, C. Fjeldså, J., Sutherland, W.J., & Olesen, J.M. (2012) Biogeographical modules and island roles: a comparison of Wallacea and the West Indies. Journal of Biogeography 39, 739-749.

Fissel. D., Babin, M., Bachmayer. R., Denman, K., Dewailly, E.,Gillis, K.M., Fortier, L., Hyndman, R., Lane, D., Lewis, M., Macdonald, R., Moran, K.,Neis, B., Nuttall, M., Pelletier, E., Ridgeway, L., Roussel, S., Snelgrove, P., Sutherland, W.J., Suttle, C., Wallace, D., Wiber,M.G. (2012) 40 Priority Research Questions for Ocean Science in Canada. Ottawa, ON.

Amano, T., Okamura, H. & Sutherland, W.J. (2012) Smoothed population indices created using hierarchical Bayesian models and a comparison of their efficiency with generalised additive and linear models. Ecological Indicators, 13, 243-252.

Siriwardena, G.M., Cooke, I.R. & Sutherland, W.J. (2012) Landscape, cropping and field boundary influences on bird abundance. Ecography 35, 162-173.

Gilroy, J.J., Guy Q. A. Anderson, G. Q. A., Vickery, J. A., Grice, P. V. and Sutherland, W. J. (2011) Identifying mismatches between habitat selection and habitat quality in a ground-nesting farmland bird. Animal Conservation. 14   620-629

Sutherland, W.J., Goulson, D., Potts, S.G. & Dicks, L.V. (2011). Quantifying the impact and relevance of scientific research. PLoS ONE 6(11):e27537.doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0027537.

Sutherland, W.J., Bellingan, L., Bellingham, J.R., Blackstock, J.J., Bloomfield, R.M., Bravo, M., Cadman, V.M., Cleevely, D.D., Clements, A., Cohen, A.S., Cope, D.R., Daemmrich, A.A., Devecchi, C., Anadon, L.D., Denegri, S., Doubleday, R., Dusic, N.R., Evans, R.J., Feng, W.Y.,  Godfray, H.C.J., Harris, P., Hartley, S.E., Hester, A.J., Holmes, J., Hughes, A.,  Hulme, M., Irwin, C., Jennings, R.C., Kass, G.S., Littlejohns, P., Marteau, T.M., McKee, G., Millstone, E.P., Nuttall, W.J., Owens, S., Parker, M.M., Pearson, S., Petts, J., Ploszek, R., Pullin, A.S., Reid, G., Richards, K.S., Robinson, J.G., Shaxson, L., Sierra, L., Smith, B.G., Spiegelhalter, D.J., Stilgoe, J., Stirling, A., Tyler, C.P., Winickoff, D.E. and Zimmern, R.L. (2011) A collaboratively-derived science-policy research agenda. PLoS ONE 7(3):e31824.doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0031824

Amano, T., Okamura, H., Carrizo, S.F. and Sutherland, W.J. (2011) Hierarchical models for smoothed population indices: the importance of considering variations in trends of count. Ecological Indicators. 13, 243–252.

Catry, I., Amano, T. Franco, A.M.A. & Sutherland, W.J. (2011) Influence of spatial and temporal dynamics of agricultural practices on the globally endangered lesser kestrel. Journal of Applied Ecology, 144, 1111-1119.

Dalsgaard, B., Magård, E., Fjeldså, J., González, A.M.M., Rahbek, C., Olesen, J.M., Ollerton, J., Alarcón, R., Araujo, A.C., Cotton. P.A., Lara, C., Machado, C.G., Sazima, I., Sazima, M., Timmermann, A., Watts, S. Brody Sandel, B., Sutherland W.J., & Svenning J-C. (2011) Specialization in Plant-hummingbird Networks is Associated with Species Richness, Contemporary Precipitation and Quaternary Climate-change Velocity. Plos One, 6, 10, e25891.

Sandel, B., Arge, L., Dalsgaard, B., Davies, R.G., Gaston, K.J., Sutherland, W.J. & Svenning, J.-C. (2011) The influence of late quaternary climate-change velocity on species endemism. Science, 334, 660-664.

Simberloff, D., Alexander, J., Allendorf, F., Aronson, J., Antunes, P.M., Bacher, S., Bardgett, R., Bertolino, S., Bishop, M., Blackburn, T.M., Blakeslee, A., Blumenthal, D., Bortolus, A., Buckley, R., Buckley, Y., Byers, J., Callaway, R.M., Campbell, F., Campbell, K., Campbell, M., Carlton, J.T., Cassey, P., Catford, J., Celesti-Grapow, L., Chapman, J., Clark. P,, Clewell, A., Clode, J.C., Chang, A., Chytry, M., Clout, M., Cohen, A., Cowan, P., Cowie, R.H., Crall, A.W., Crooks, J., Deveney, M., Dixon, K., Dobbs, F.C., Duffy, D.C., Duncan, R., Ehrlich, P.R., Eldredge, L., Evenhuis, N., Fausch, K.D., Feldhaar, H., Firn, J., Fowler, A., Galil, B., Garcia-Berthou, E., Geller, J., Genovesi, P., Gerber, E., Gherardi, F., Gollasch, S., Gordon, D., Graham, J., Gribben, P., Griffen, B., Grosholz, E.D., Hewitt, C., Hierro, J.L., Hulme, P., Hutchings, P., Jarosik, V., Johnson, C., Johnson, L., Johnston, E.L., Jones, C.G., Keller, R., King, C.M., Knols, B.G.J., Kollmann,, J., Kompas, T., Kotanen, P.M., Kowarik, I., Kuhn, I., Kumschick, S., Leung, B., Liebhold, A., MacIsaac, H., Mack, R., McCullough, D.G., McDonald, R., Merritt, D.M., Meyerson, L., Minchin, D., Mooney, H.A., Morisette, J.T., Moyle, P., Heinz, M.S., Murray, B.R., Nehring, S., Nelson, W., Nentwig, W., Novak, S.J., Occhipinti, A., Ojaveer, H., Osborne, B., Ostfeld, R.S., Parker, J., Pederson, J., Pergl, J., Phillips, M.L., Pysek, P., Rejmanek, M., Ricciardi, A., Ricotta, C., Richardson, D., Rilov, G., Ritchie, E., Robertson, P.A., Roman, J., Ruiz, G., Schaefer, H., Schaffelke, B., Schierenbeck, K.A., Schmitz, D.C., Schwindt, E., Seeb, J., Smith, L.D., Smith, G.F., Stohlgren, T., Strayer, D.L., Strong, D., Sutherland, W.J., Therriault, T., Thuiller, W., Torchin, M., van der Putten, W., Vila, M., Von Holle, B., Wallentinus, I., Wardle, D., Williamson, M., Wilson, J., Winter, M., Wolfe, L.M., Wright, J., Wonham, M. & Zabin, C. (2011) Non-natives: 141 scientists object. Nature, 475, 36-36.

Fleishman, E., Blockstein, D.E., Hall, J.A.,  Mascia, M.B., Rudd, M.A., Scott, J.M., Sutherland, W.J., Bartuska,A.M. Brown, A.G., Christen, C.A., Clement, J. P., Sala, D.D., Duke, C.D., Eaton, M., Fiske, S.J., Gosnell,H.,  Haney, J.C.,  Hutchins, M.,  Klein, M.L., Marqusee, J.,  Noon, B.R.,  Nordgren, J.R., Orbuch,P.M., Powell,J., Quarles,S.P., Saterson, K.A., Savitt, C.C., Stein, B.A., Webster, M. S. & Vedder, A. (2011) Top 40 priorities for science to inform conservation and management policy in the United States. BioScience, 61, 290-300.

Rayn, D. & Sutherland, W.J. (2011) Impact of nature reserve establishment on deforestation: A test. Biodiversity and Conservation, 20, 1625-1633.

Knudsen, E., Lindén, A., Both, C., Jonzén, N., Pulido, F., Saino, N., Sutherland, W. J., Bach, L.A., Coppack, T., Ergon, T., Gienapp, P., Gill, J. A., Gordo, O. & Hedenström, A., Lehikoinen, E., Marra, P.P., Møller, A.P., Nilsson, A.L., Péron, G., Ranta, E., Rubolini. D,, Sparks, T.H., Spina, F., Studds, C.E., Saether, S.A., Tryjanowski, P. & Chr Stenseth, N. (2011) Challenging claims in the study of migratory birds and climate change. Biological Reviews, 86, 928-946.

Sutherland, W.J. Barlow, R., Clements, A., Harper, M., Herkenrath, P., Margerison, C., Monk, K.A., Robinson, J.A. & Thompson, D.B.A. (2011) What are the forthcoming legislative issues of interest to ecologists and conservationists in 2011? BES Bulletin, 42, 26-31.

Queenborough, S.A., Burnet, K.M., Sutherland, W.J., Watkinson, A.R. & Freckleton, R.P. From meso- to macroscale population dynamics: a new density-structured approach (2011) Methods in Ecology and Evolution, 2, 289-302.

Sutherland, W.J. Fleishman, E., Mascia, M.B., Pretty, P. & Rudd, M.A. (2011) Methods for collaboratively identifying research priorities and emerging issues in science and policy. Methods in Ecology and Evolution, 2, 238-247.

Catry, I., Franco, A.M.A. & Sutherland, W.J.  (2011) Adapting conservation efforts to face climate change: modifying nest-site provisioning for lesser kestrels. Biological Conservation, 144, 1111-1119.

Jacquet, J., Boyd, I., Carlton, J.T., Fox, H., Johnson, A.E., Mee, L., Roman, J., Spalding, M. & Sutherland, W.J.  (2011) Scanning the oceans for solutions. Solutions, 2, 46-55.

Sutherland, W.J. & Peel, M.J.S. (2011) Benchmarking as a means of improving conservation practice. Oryx, 45, 56 -59.

Sutherland, W.J., Bardsley, S., Bennun, L., Clout, M., Côté, I.M., Depledge, M.H., Dicks, L.V., Dobson, A.P., Fellman, L., Fleishman, E., Gibbons, D.W., Impey, A.J., Lawton, J.H., Lickorish, F., Lindenmayer, D.B., Lovejoy, T.E., Mac Nally, R., Madgwick, J., Peck, L.S., Pretty, J., Prior, S.V., Redford, K.H., Scharlemann, J.P.W., Spalding, M. & Watkinson, A.R. (2011) A Horizon Scan of Global Conservation Issues for 2011. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 26, 10-16.

Queenborough, S.A., Burnet, K.M, Sutherland, W.J., Watkinson, A.R. & Freckleton, R.P. (2011) Density-structured models for plant population dynamics. American Naturalist, 177, 1-17.

Catry, I., Dias, M.P., Catry, T., Afanasyev, V., Fox, J. Franco, A. M.A. & Sutherland, W.J.  (2011) Geolocation data reveals individual variation in migratory movements and winter behaviour of Iberian Lesser Kestrels Falco naumanni. Ibis, 153, 154-164

Cornulier, T., Robinson, R.A., Elston, D., Lambin, X., Sutherland, W.J. & Benton, T.G. (2011) Bayesian reconstitution of environmental change from disparate historical records: hedgerow loss and farmland bird declines. Methods in Ecology and Evolution, 2, 86–94.

Dicks, L & Sutherland, W.J. (2011) Evidence-based conservation on farmland – making it possible. In Practice, 71, 16-18

Rands, M. R. W, Adams, W. M., Bennun, L., Butchart, S. H. M., Clements, A., Coomes, D., Entwistle, A., Hodge, I., Kapos, V., Scharlemann, J. P. W., Sutherland, W. J. & Vira, B. (2010) Biodiversity Conservation Beyond 2010. Culture and Biodiversity Losses Linked—Response. Science, 331, 31.

Pretty, J.J.,  Sutherland, W.J., Ashby, J., Auburn, J. Baulcombe, D. Bell, M. Bentley, J., Bickersteth, S., Brown, K., Burke, J., Campbell, H., Chen, K., Crowley, E., Crute, I., Dobbelaere, D., Edwards-Jones, G., Funes-Monzote, F., H. Godfray, C.J., Griffon, M., Gypmantisiri, P., Haddad, L., Halavatau, S., Herren, H, Holderness, M, Izac,A-M, Jones, M., Koohafkan, P. Lal, R., Lang, T., McNeely, J., Mueller, A., Nisbett, N., Noble, A., Pingali, P., Pinto, Y., Rabbinge, R., Ravindranath, N.H., Rola, A., Roling, N., Sage, C., Settle, W., Sha, J.M., Shiming, L., Simons, T., Smith, P., Strzepeck, K., Swaine, H., Terry, E., Tomich, T.P., Toulmin, C., Trigo, E.,  Twomlow, S.  Kees Vis, J., Wilson, J. & Pilgrim, S. (2010) The top 100 questions for global agriculture and food.  International Journal of Agricultural Sustainability, 8, 219-236.

Lawton, J.H., Brotherton, P.N.M., Brown, V.K., Elphick, C., Fitter, A.H., Forshaw, J., Haddow, R.W., Hilborner, S., Leafe, R.N., Mace, G.M., Southgate, M.P., Sutherland, W.J., Tew, T.E., Varley, J. & Wynne, G.R. (2010) Making Space for Nature: a review of England’s wildlife sites and ecological networks. Report to Defra.

Sutherland, W.J., Albon, S.D., Allison, H., Armstrong-Brown, S., Bailey, M.J., Bereton, T., Boyd, I.L., Carey, P., Edwards, J., Gill, M., Hill, D., Hodge, I., Hunt, A.J., Le Quesne, W.J.F., Macdonald, D.W., Mee, L.D., Mitchell, R.,  Norman, T., Owen, R.P., Parker, D., Prior, S.V., Pullin, A.S., Rands, M.R.W., Redpath, S., Spencer, J., Spray, C.J., Thomas, C.D., Tucker, G,M., Watkinson, A.R. & Clements, A. (2010) The identification of priority opportunities for UK nature conservation policy. Journal of Applied Ecology, 47, 955-965.

Rands, M. R. W, Adams, W. M., Bennun, L., Butchart, S. H. M.,  Clements, A., Coomes, D., Entwistle, A., Hodge, I., Kapos, V., Scharlemann, J. P. W., Sutherland, W. J. & Vira, B. (2010)  Biodiversity Conservation Beyond 2010. Science, 329, 1298-1303.

Székely, T. & Sutherland, W.J. (2010) Hunting the cause of a population crash. Nature, 466, 448.

Eglington, S.N., Bolton, M. A., Smart, J., Sutherland, W.J., Watkinson, A.R. & Gill, J.A.(2010) Managing water levels on wet grasslands to improve foraging conditions for breeding northern lapwing Vanellus vanellus.  Journal of Applied Ecology, 47, 451-458.

Amano, T., Székely, T., Koyama, K., Amano, H. & Sutherland, W.J. (2010) A framework for monitoring the status of populations: an example from wader populations in the East Asian-Australasian flyway. Biological Conservation, 143, 2238-2247.

Amano, T., Smithers, R.J. Sparks, T.H. & Sutherland, W.J. (2010). A 250-year index of first flowering dates and its response to temperature changes. Proceedings B Royal Society 277, 2451-2457.

Sutherland, W,J., Armstrong, D., Butchart, S.H.M., Earnhardt, J., Ewen, J., Jamieson, I., Jones, C.G., Lee, R., Newbery, P., Nichols, J.D., Parker, K. A., Sarrazin, F., Seddon, P., Shah, N. & Tatayah, V. (2010) Standards for documenting and monitoring bird reintroduction projects Conservation Letters, 3, 229-235.   

Hanson, S., Nicholls, R. J., Balson. P., Brown, I., French, J. R., Spencer, T. & Sutherland, W.J. (2010) Capturing coastal geomorphological change within regional integrated assessment: an outcome-driven fuzzy logic approach. Journal of Coastal Research, 26, 831–842.

Smith, R.K., Pullin, A.S., Stewart, G.B. & Sutherland, W.J. (2010) Is nest predator exclusion an effective strategy for enhancing bird populations? Biological Conservation, 24, 820-829.   

Alves,J.A., Lourenço, P.M., Piersma, T., Sutherland, W.J. & Gill, J.A.(2010)Population overlap and habitat segregation in wintering Black-tailed Godwits. Bird Study, 57, 381-391.   

Tejeda-Cruz, C., Silva-Rivera, E., Barton, J. & Sutherland, W.J. (2010) Why shade coffee does not guarantee biodiversity conservation. Ecology and Society, 15, 13.

Smith, R.K., Pullin, A.S., Stewart, G.B. & Sutherland, W.J. (2010) The effectiveness of predator removal for enhancing bird populations: a systematic review. Conservation Biology, 24, 820-829.

Dicks, L.J. Showler, D.A. & Sutherland, W.J. (2010) Bee conservation: evidence for the effectiveness of interventions. Pelagic Publishing.

Gilroy, J.J., Anderson, G.Q.A., Grice, P.V., Vickery, J.A. & Sutherland, W.J. (2010) Mid-season shifts in the habitat associations of Yellow Wagtails Motacilla flava breeding in arable farmland. Ibis, 152, 90-104.

Sutherland,W.J., Clout, M., Côté,I.M., Daszak,P.,  Depledge,M.H., Fellman, L., Fleishman, E.,Garthwaite,R., Gibbons,D.W., De Lurio,J., Impey, A.J., Lickorish, F.,Lindenmayer, D., Madgwick, J., Margerison, C., Maynard,T., Peck, L.S.,Pretty, J.,Prior,S.V., Redford, K.H., Scharlemann, J.P.W., Spalding, M. & Watkinson, A.R. (2010) A Horizon Scan of Global Conservation Issues for 2010. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 25, 1-7.

Milner-Gulland, E.J., Fisher, M., Browne, S., Redford, K.H., Spencer M., & Sutherland W. J. (2010) Do we need to develop a more relevant conservation literature? Oryx, 44, 1-2.

Catry, I., Franco, A.M.A. & Sutherland, W.J. (2009) Identifying the effectiveness and constraints of conservation interventions: a case study of the endangered lesser kestrel Biological Conservation, 142, 2782-2791.

Cornulier, T., Elston, D., Arcese, P., Benton, T., Douglas, D., Lambin, X., Reid, J., Robinson, R. & Sutherland, W. J. (2009) Estimating annual breeding frequency from censused breeding dates: Using mixture models to disaggregate overlapping distributions Ecology Letters, 12, 1184-1193.  

Wright, L.J., Hoblyn, R.A., Green, R.E., Bowden, C.G.R., Mallord, J.W., Sutherland, W.J. & Dolman, P.M. (2009) Importance of climatic and environmental change in the demography of a multi-brooded passerine, the woodlark Lullula arborea. Journal of Animal Ecology, 1191-1202.

Sachs, J.D., Baillie, J., Sutherland, W.J., Armsworth, P.R., Ash, N., Beddington, J., Blackburn,T.M., Collen, B., Gardiner,B., Gaston, K.J., Godfray, H.C.J., Green, R., Harvey, P.H., House, B., Knapp, S., Kümpe, N.F., Macdonald, D.W., Mace, G.M., Mallet, J., Matthews, A., May, R.M., Petchey, O., Purvis, A., Roe1, D., Safi, K., Turner, K., Walpole, M., Watson, R. & Jones, K.E. (2009) Biodiversity Conservation and the Millennium Development Goals. Science, 325, 1502-3.

Raine, A.F., Brown, A.F., Amano, T. & Sutherland W.J. (2009) Assessing population changes from disparate data sources: the decline of the Twite (Carduelis flavirostris) in England. Bird Conservation International, 19, 401-416.

Coomes, E.G., Jones, A.P. & Sutherland, W.J. (2009) The implications of climate change on coastal visitor numbers: a regional analysis. Journal of Coastal Research, 25, 981-990.

Gilroy, J.J., Anderson, G.Q.A., Grice, P.V., Vickery, J.A., Watts, P.N. & Sutherland, W.J. (2009) Foraging habitat selection, diet and nestling condition in Yellow Wagtails Motacilla flava breeding on arable farmland. Bird Study, 56, 221-232.

Sutherland, W.J. & Woodroof, H.J. (2009) The need for environmental horizon scanning. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 24, 523-527.

Cowling, R.M., Mascia, M.B., Possingham H. & Sutherland, W. J. (2009) Conservation science for impact: the first year of Conservation Letters. Conservation Letters, 2, 1-2.

Sutherland, W.J., Adams, W.M., Aronson, R.B., Aveling, R., Blackburn, T.M., Broad, S., Ceballos, G., Côté, I.M., Cowling, R.M., da Fonseca, G.A.B., Dinerstein, E., Ferraro, P.J., Fleishman, E., Gascon, C., Hunter Jr, M., Hutton, J., Kareiva, P., Kuria, A., Macdonald, D.W., MacKinnon, K., Madgwick, F.J., Mascia, M.B., McNeely, J., Milner-Gulland, E.J., Moon, S., Morley, C.G., Nelson, S., Osborn, D., Pai, M., Parsons, E.C.M., Peck, L.S., Possingham, H., Prior, S.V., Pullin, A.S., Rands, M.R.W., Ranganathan, J., Redford, K.H., Rodriguez, J.P., Seymour, F., Sobel, F., Sodhi, N.S., Stott, A., Vance-Borland, K. & Watkinson, A.R. (2009) An assessment of the 100 questions of greatest importance to the conservation of global biological diversity. Conservation Biology, 23, 557–567.

Cooke, I.R., Queenborough, S.A., Mattison, E. H. A., Bailey, A. P., Sandars, D.L., Graves, A. R., Morris, J., Atkinson, P., Trawick, P., Freckleton, R. P., Watkinson, A.R. & Sutherland, W.J. (2009) Integrating socio-economics and ecology: a taxonomy of quantitative methods and a review of their use in agro-ecology. Journal of Applied Ecology, 46, 269–277.

Coomes, E.G., Jones, A.P., Bateman, I.J., Tratalos, J.A., Gill, J.A., Showler, D.A., Watkinson, A.R. & Sutherland, W.J. (2009) Spatial and temporal modelling of beach use: A Case study of East Anglia, UK. Coastal Management, 37, 94–115.

Stewart, G.B. Bayliss, H.R. Showler, D.A. Sutherland, W.J. & Pullin, A.S. (2009)  Effectiveness of engineered in-stream structure mitigation measures for increasing salmonid abundance: a systematic review. Ecological Application, 19, 931–941.

Keo, O., Collar, N.J. & Sutherland, W.J. (2009) Nest protectors provide a cost-effective means of increasing breeding success in Giant Ibis Thaumatibis gigantean. Bird Conservation International, 19, 77-82.

Eglington, S.M., Gill, J.A., Sutherland, W.J., Watkinson, A.R. & Bolton, M. (2009) Habitat management and patterns of predation of Northern Lapwings on wet grasslands: the influence of linear habitat structures at different spatial scales. Biological Conservation, 142, 314-324.

Gilroy, J.A., Anderson, G.Q.A., Grice, P.V., Vickery, J.A., Bray, I, P., Watts, N. & Sutherland, W.J (2008) Could soil degradation contribute to farmland bird declines? Links between soil penetrability and the abundance of yellow wagtails Motacilla flava in arable fields. Biological Conservation, 141, 3116-3126.

Freckleton, R.P., Sutherland, W.J., Watkinson, A.R. & Stephens, P.A. (2008) Modelling the effects of management on population dynamics: some lessons from annual weeds. Journal of Applied Ecology, 45, 1050-1058.  

Mallord, J.W., Dolman, P.M., Brown, A.F. & Sutherland, W.J. (2008) Early nesting does not result in greater productivity in the multi-brooded woodlark Lullula arborea. Bird Study, 55, 145-151.

Sutherland, W. J., Bailey, M. J., Bainbridge, I. P., Brereton, T., Dick, J. T. A., Drewitt, J., Dulvy, N. K., Dusic, N. R., Freckleton, R. P., Gaston, K. J., Gilder, P. M.,Green, R. E., Heathwaite, L., Johnson, S. M., Macdonald, D. W., Mitchell, R., Osborn, D., Owen, R. P., Pretty, J., Prior, S. V., Prosser, H., Pullin, A. S., Rose, P., Stott, A., Tew, T., Thomas, C. D., Thompson, D. B. A., Vickery, J. A., Walker, M.,  Walmsley, C., Warrington, S., Watkinson, A. R., Williams, R. J., Woodroffe, R. & Woodroof, H. J. (2008)Future novel threats and opportunities facing UK biodiversity identified by horizon scanning. Journal of Applied Ecology, 45, 821-833.

Kokko, H., Laakso, J. & Sutherland, W.J. (2008) In memoriam: Professor Esa Ranta (1953-2008) Annales Zoologici Fennica, 45, 6.

Einum, S.; Nislow, Keith; Reynolds, J.D. & Sutherland, W.J. (2008) Predicting population responses to breeding habitat restoration in Atlantic salmon. Journal of Applied Ecology, 45, 930-938.

Eglington, S., Gill, J.A., Bolton, M., Sutherland, W.J. & Watkinson, A.R. (2008) Restoration of wet features for breeding waders on lowland grassland. Journal of Applied Ecology, 45, 305-314.

Ratikainen, I.I.; Gill, J.A. Gunnarsson, T. Sutherland, W.J. & Kokko, H. (2008) When density-dependence is not instantaneous: theoretical developments and management implications.  Ecology letters, 11,184-198.

Mustin, K., Sutherland, W.J. & Gill, J.A. (2008)The complexity of predicting climate-induced ecological impacts. Climate Research, 35, 165-175.

Coomes, E.G. Jones, A.P. & Sutherland, W.J. (2008) The biodiversity implications of changes in coastal tourism due to climate change. Environmental Conservation, 35, 319-330.

Mallord, J.W., Dolman, P.M., Brown, A.F. & Sutherland, W.J. (2007) Nest site characteristics of woodlarks Lullula arborea breeding on heathlands in southern England - are there consequences for nest survival and productivity? Bird Study, 54, 307-314.

Mallord, J.W., Dolman, P.M., Brown, A.F. Sutherland, W.J. (2007) Quantifying density dependence in a bird population using human disturbance. Oecologia, 153, 49-56.

Wright, L.J., Hoblyn, R.A., Sutherland, W.J. & Dolman, P.M. (2007) Reproductive success of woodlarks Lullula arborea in traditional and recently colonised habitats. Bird Study, 54, 315-323.

Gillings, S. & Sutherland, W.J. (2007) Comparative diurnal and nocturnal diet and foraging in Eurasian golden plovers Pluvialis apricaria and northern lapwings Vanellus vanellus wintering on arable farmland. Ardea, 95, 243-257.

Gilroy, J. & Sutherland, W.J. (2007) Ecological traps and undervalued resources. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 22, 351-356.

Edwards, D.P., Hassall, M., Sutherland, W.J. & Yu, D.W. (2007) Protection in an ant-plant mutualism: an adaptation or a sensory trap? Animal Behaviour, 74, 377-385.

Gillings, S., Fuller, R.J. & Sutherland, W.J. (2007) Winter field use and habitat selection by Eurasian Golden Plovers Pluvialis apricaria and Northern Lapwings Vanellus vanellus on arable farmland  Ibis, 149, 509-520.

Sutherland, W.J. (2007) Future directions in disturbance research. Ibis 149 (supplement) 1, 120–124.

Franco, A. M. A., Palmeirim, J. M. & Sutherland, W. J. (2007) A method for comparing effectiveness of research techniques in conservation and applied ecology. Biological Conservation, 134, 96-105.

Mallord, J.W., Dolman, P.M., Brown, A.F. & Sutherland, W.J. (2007) Predicting the consequences of recreational disturbance for a woodlark Lullula arborea population on heathlands in southern England. Journal of Applied Ecology, 44, 185-195.

Liley, D. & Sutherland, W.J. (2007) Predicting the population consequences of human disturbance for ringed plover Charadrius hiaticula population size: a game theory approach. Ibis, 149 (Supplement) 1, 82–94.

Murison, G., Bullock, J.M., Day, J., Langston, R., Brown, A.F. & Sutherland, W.J. (2007) Habitat type determines the effects of disturbance on the breeding productivity of the Dartford Warbler Sylvia undata. Ibis, 149 (Supplement) 1, 16–26.

Raine. A.F., Sowter, D.J., Brown, A.F. & Sutherland, W.J. (2006) Natal philopatry and movement patterns of Twite Carduelis flavirostris in the South Pennines, England. Ringing and Migration, 23, 89-94.

Gunnarsson, T.G., Gill, J.A., Atkinson, P.W., Gélinaud, G., Potts, P.M., Croger, R. E., Gudmundsson, G.A., Appleton, G.F. & Sutherland, W.J. (2006) Population-scale drivers of individual arrival times in migratory birds. Journal of Animal Ecology, 75, 119-1127.

Gillings, S., Austin, G.E., Fuller, R.F. & Sutherland, W.J. (2006) Distribution shifts in wintering golden plover Pluvialis apricaria and lapwing Vanellus vanellus in Britain. Bird Study, 53, 274-284.

Ridley, J., Komdeur, J., Richardson, D. & Sutherland, W.J. (2006) Population predictions for Seychelles warblers in novel environments. Acta Zoologica Sinica. 52 (supplement) 465-469.

Kaiser, M. J. Galanidi, M., Showler, D. A. Elliott, A. J. Caldow, R. W. G., Rees, E. I. S., Stillman, R. A. & Sutherland, W. J. (2006) Distribution and behaviour of Common Scoter Melanitta nigra relative to prey resources and environmental parameters Ibis, 148, 110-128.

Goss-Custard, J.D., West, A.D., Yates, M.G., Caldow, R.W.G., Stillman, R.A.S., Castilla, J., Castro, M, Dierschke, V, Durell, S.E.A. le V. , Eichhorn, G, Ens, B.J., Exo, K.-M., Fernando, P.U.U., Ferns, P.N., Hockey, P.A.R., Gill, J.A., Johnstone, I, Kalejta-Summers, B., Masero, J.A. Moreira, F., Nagarajan, R., Owens, I.P.F., Pacheco, C., Perez-Hurtado, A., Rogers, D., Scheiffarth, G., Sitters, H. Sutherland, W.J., Triplet, P., Worrall, D.H., Zharikov, Y., Zwarts, L. & Pettifor, R.A (2006) Intake rates and the functional response in shorebirds Charadriiformes eating macroinvertebrates. Biological Reviews, 81, 501-529

Smart, J. Gill, J.A., Sutherland, W.J. & Watkinson, A.R. (2006) Grassland-breeding waders: identifying key habitat requirements for management. Journal of Applied Ecology, 43, 454-463.

Freckleton, R.P., Watkinson, A.R, Green, R.E. & Sutherland, W.J. (2006) Census error and the detection of density-dependence. Journal of Animal Ecology, 75, 837-851.

Siriwardena, G.M., Calbrade, N.A., Vickery, J.A. & Sutherland, W.J. (2006) The effect of the spatial distribution of winter food resources on their use by granivorous farmland birds. Journal of Applied Ecology, 43, 628-639.

Raine, A.F., Sowter, D.J., Brown, A.F. & Sutherland W.J. (2006) Migration patterns of two populations of Twite Carduelis flavirostris in Britain.  Ringing and Migration, 23, 45-52.

Sutherland, W.J., Armstrong-Brown, S., Armsworth, P. R., Brereton, T.,  Brickland, J.,  Campbell, C. D., Chamberlain, D. E.,  Cooke, A. I., Dulvy, N. K., Dusic, N. R.,  Fitton, M., Freckleton, R. P., Godfray, H. C., Grout,  N., Harvey, H. J., Hedley, C., Hopkins, J. J., Kift, N. B.,  Kirby, J., Kunin, W. E., MacDonald, D. W., Markee, B., Naura, M., Neale, A.R., Oliver, T., Osborn, D., Pullin, A. S.,  Shardlow, M. E. A., Showler, D. A., Smith, P. L., Smithers, R. J., Solandt, J.-L., Spencer, J., Spray, C. J., Thomas, C. D., Thompson, J., Webb, S. E., Yalden, D.W. & Watkinson, A. R. (2006) The identification of one hundred ecological questions of high policy relevance in the UK. Journal of Applied Ecology, 43, 617-627.

Sutherland, W.J. (2006) Predicting the ecological consequences of environmental change: a review of the methods. Journal of Applied Ecology, 43, 599-616

Edwards, D.P., Hassall, M., Sutherland, W.J. & Yu, D.W. (2006) Assembling a mutualism: ant symbionts locate their host plants by detecting volatile chemicals. Insectes Sociaux, 53, 172-176.

Gunnarsson, T.G., Gill, J.A., Goodacre, S., Gélinaud, G., Atkinson, P.W., Hewitt, G., Potts, P.M. & Sutherland, W.J. (2006) Sexing birds: a comparison of behavioural, molecular, biometric and field-based techniques. Bird Study, 53, 193-198.

Edwards, D.P., Hassall, M.P., Sutherland, W.J. & Yu, D.W. (2006) Selection for protection in an ant-plant mutualism: host sanctions, host modularity, and the principle agent game. Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 273, 595-602.

Gunnarsson, T.G., Gill, J.A., Appleton, G.F., Gíslason, H., Gardassson, A., Watkinson, A.R. & Sutherland, W.J. (2006) Large-scale habitat associations of birds in lowland Iceland: implications for conservation. Biological Conservation, 128, 265-275.

Sutherland, W.J. (2006) Ecological Census Techniques. Second edition. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.

Sutherland, W.J. (2006) Planning a research programme. In: W.J. Sutherland (ed). Ecological Census Techniques. Second edition.  Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.

Sutherland, W.J. (2006) The twenty commonest surveying sins. In: W.J. Sutherland (ed) Ecological Census Techniques. Second edition. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.

Sutherland, W.J. (2005) The next step. Bota,G., Camprodon, J., Mañosa, S. & Morales, M. (Eds) Ecology and conservation of steppe land birds. p9-10.

Gillings, S., Fuller, R.J. & Sutherland, W.J. (2005) Diurnal studies do not predict nocturnal habitat choice and site selection of Eurasian Golden Plovers Pluvialis apricaria and Northern Lapwings Vanellus vanellus. Auk, 122, 1249-1260.

Gunnarsson, T.G., Gill, J.A., Newton, J., Potts, P.M. & Sutherland, W.J. (2005) Seasonal matching of habitat quality and fitness in migratory birds Proceedings of the Royal Society B.272, 2319-2323.

Sutherland, W.J., Pullin, A.S., Dolman, P.M. & Knight, T.M. (2005) Reply: Evidence-based conservation: dealing with social issues. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 20, 424-5.

Sutherland, W.J. (2005) Optimization: the best solution. Nature (concepts) 435, 569.

McWilliams, J.P., Côté, I.M., Gill, J.A., Sutherland, W.J. & Watkinson, A.R. (2005) Accelerating impacts of temperature-induced coral bleaching in the Caribbean. Ecology, 86, 2055-2060.

Gunnarsson, T. G. Gill, J.A., Petersen, A., Appleton, G., Sutherland, W.J. (2005)  A double buffer effect in a migratory population. Journal of Animal Ecology, 74, 965-971.

Gunnarsson, T.G., Gill, J.A., Potts, P.M., Atkinson, P.W., Croger, R.E., Célinaud,G.,  Gardarsson, A. & Sutherland, W.J. (2005) Estimating population size in Icelandic Black-tailed Godwits Limosa limosa islandica by colour-marking. Bird Study, 52, 153-158.

Sutherland, W.J. (2005) How can we make conservation more effective? Oryx, 39, 1-2.

Tejeda-Cruz, C. & Sutherland, W.J. (2005) Cloud forest bird responses to unusually severe storm damage Biotropica, 37, 88-95.

Franco, A.M.A., Marques, J.T. & Sutherland, W.J. (2005) Is nest-site availability limiting lesser kestrel populations? A multiple scale approach. Ibis 147, 657-666.

Ridley, J., Yu, D & Sutherland, W.J. (2005) Why long-lived species are more likely to be social: the role of local dominance. Behavioural Ecology, 16, 358-363.

Stephens, P.A., Russell, A.F., Young,A.J., Sutherland, W.J. & Clutton-Brock, T.H. (2005) Dispersal, eviction and conflict in meerkats (Suricata suricata) an evolutionarily stable strategy model. American Naturalist 165, 120-135.

Gunnarsson, T. G., Gill, J.A., Sigurbjörnsson,T., Sutherland, W.J. (2004) Arrival synchrony in migratory birds. Nature, 431, 646.

Coombes, E.G., Jones, A.P., Sutherland, W.J. & Bateman, I.J., (2004) Interactions between tourism, biodiversity and climate change in the coastal zone. In: Matzarakis, A., de Freitas, C.R. & Scott, D., (eds.) Advances in Tourism Climatology. Ber. Meteor. Inst. Univ. Freiburg Nr.12 p.141-148.

Freckleton, R.P., Stephens, P.A., Watkinson, A.R. & Sutherland, W.J. (2004) Modelling the effects of genetically modified crops on farmland food webs. Aspects of Applied Biology, 74, 183-90

Sutherland, W.J., Pullin, A.S. Dolman, P.M. & Knight, T.M. (2004) Mismatches between conservation science and practice. Trends in Ecology and Evolution. 19, 565-566.

Sutherland, W.J. (2004) A blueprint for the countryside. Ibis, 146 (Supplement) 2, 230-238.

Sutherland, W.J. (2004) Climate change and coastal birds: research questions and policy responses. Ibis ,146 (supl 1) 120-124.

Smart, J., Sutherland, W.J., Watkinson, A.R.& Gill, J.A. (2004) A new means of presenting the results of logistic regression. Bulletin of the Ecological Society of America - Technological Tools, 85, 100-102.

Freckleton, R.P., Sutherland, W.J., & Watkinson, A.R. (2004) The fate of GM crops in Europe. Science, 304, 954-956.

Franco, A., M.A., Palmeirim, J.M. & Sutherland, W.J. (2004) Modelling the foraging habitat selection of lesser kestrels: conservation implications of European Agricultural Policies. Biological Conservation, 120, 63-74.

Sæther, B-E, Sutherland, W.J. & Engen, S. (2004) Climate Influences on avian population dynamics. Advances in Ecological Research 35, 185-209.

Franco, A.M.A., Catry, I., Sutherland, W.J. & Palmeirim, J.M. (2004) Do different methods produce the same conservation recommendations for lesser kestrels? Animal Conservation, 7, 291-300.

Sutherland, W.J., Pullin, A.S., Dolman, P.M. & T.M. Knight (2004) The need for evidence-based conservation. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 19, 305-308.

Ridley, J., Komdeur, J. & Sutherland, W.J. (2004) Incorporating territory compression into population models. Oikos, 105, 101-108.

Freckleton, R.P., Stephens, P.A., Sutherland, W.J. & Watkinson, A.R. (2004) Amelioration of biodiversity impacts of GM technology: predicting transient versus long-term effects. Proceedings of the Royal Society B., 271, 325-331

King, D., Dalton, H., Avery, M., Bainbridge, J., Bharucha,C., Bowles, D., Bright, S., Cockburn, A., Crawley, M., Dale, P., Gale, M., Gasson, M., Gray, M., Gasson, M., Gray, A., Gray, J., Heslop-Harrison, P., Hill, J., Johnson, B., Leaver, C., Pretty, J., Reiss, M., Rima, B., Silverman, B., Stirling, A., Sutherland, W., Wilson, M. & Young, P. (2003) GMScience Review. Second Report.

Tejeda-Cruz, C. & Sutherland, W.J. (2004) Bird responses to shade coffee production. Animal Conservation, 7, 1-11.

Sutherland, W.J., Newton, I. & Green, R.H. eds (2004) Bird Ecology and Conservation: a Handbook of Techniques. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Sutherland, W.J. & Green, R.H. (2004) Habitat assessment. p251-268 in Sutherland, W.J., Newton, I. & Green, R.H. Bird Ecology and Conservation: a Handbook of Techniques. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Stephens, P.A., Pretty, J.N. & Sutherland, W.J. (2004) Agriculture, transport policy and landscape heterogeneity. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 18, 555-556.

Sutherland, W.J. (2004) Diet. p233-250 in Sutherland, W.J., Newton, I. & Green, R.H. Bird Ecology and Conservation: a Handbook of Techniques. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Godfray, C.J., Currow, R.N., Dye, C. Pfeiffer, D., Sutherland, W.J. & Woolhouse, M.E.J. (2004) Independent scientific review of the randomised badger culling trial and associated epidemiological research. Report to Mr Ben Bradshaw M.P.

Stephens, P.A., Freckleton, R.P., Watkinson, A.R. & Sutherland, W.J. (2003) Predicting the response of farmland birds to changing food supplies. Journal of Applied Ecology 40, 970-983.

Kleijn, D. & Sutherland, W.J (2003)  How effective are European agri-environment schemes in conserving and promoting biodiversity? Journal of Applied Ecology, 40, 947-969.

Sutherland, W.J. (2003) Evidence-based conservation. Conservation in Practice 4, 39-41.

Freckleton, R.P.. Sutherland, W.J & Watkinson, A.R. (2003) Deciding the future of GM crops in Europe. Science 302, 994-996.

Ausden, M., Rowlands, A.,  Sutherland, W.J. & James, R.J. (2003) The diet of breeding lapwings Vanellus vanellus and redshank Tringa totanus on coastal grazing marsh and the implications for habitat management. Bird Study, 50, 285-293

King, D., Dalton, H., Avery, M., Bainbridge, J., Bharucha,C., Bowles, D., Bright, S., Cockburn, A., Crawley, M., Dale, P., Gale, M., Gasson, M., Gray, M., Gasson, M., Gray, A., Gray, J., Heslop-Harrison, P., Hill, J., Johnson, B., Leaver, C., Pretty, J., Reiss, M., Rima, B., Silverman, B., Stirling, A., Sutherland, W., Wilson, M., Young, P. (2003) GM Science Review. First Report.

Sutherland, W.J. & Norris, K. (2003) Behavioural models of population growth rates: implications for conservation and prediction Wildlife population growth rates p225-248 (ed R. Sibly, J. Hone & T.H. Clutton-Brock). Cambridge University Press.

Ridley, J., Komdeur, J. & Sutherland, W.J. (2003) Population regulation in group living birds: predictive models of the Seychelles warbler. Journal of Animal Ecology, 72, 588-598.

Sutherland, W.J. (2003) Parallel extinction risk and global distribution of languages and species. Nature, 423, 276-279.

Thomas, G.H., Székely, T. & Sutherland, W.J. (2003) Publication bias in waders. Wader Study Group Bulletin, 100, 216-223.

Ridley, J. & Sutherland, W.J. (2002) Kin competition within groups: the offspring depreciation hypothesis. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B-Biological, 269, 2559-2564.

Sutherland, W.J. (2002) Behavioural approached to landscape ecology. In: Avian Landscape Ecology (ed. Chamberlain, D. & Wilson, A) p112-117. International Association for landscape Ecology

Sutherland, W.J. (2002) Science, sex and the kakapo. Nature, 419, 265-6.

Sutherland, W.J. (2002) Behavioural approaches to predicting the response to novel environmental conditions. Ethology, 37,11-14.

Sutherland, W.J. (2002) Openness in management. Nature, 418, 834-5.

Sutherland.W.J. & Norris, K. (2002) Behavioural models of population growth rates: implication for conservation and predictions. Proceedings of the Royal Society Series B. 357, 1273-1284.

Yu, D.W., Sutherland, W.J. & Clark, C. (2002) Trade v Environment. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 17,341-344.

Stephens, P.A., Frey-Roos, F., Arnold, W., & Sutherland, W.J. (2002) Sustainable exploitation of social species: a test and comparison of models. Journal of Applied Ecology 39, 629-642.

Paradis, E., Bailiie, S.R., Sutherland, W.J. & Gregory, R.D. (2002) Exploring density dependence in demographic parameters in populations of birds at a large spatial scale. Oikos, 97, 283-307.

Sutherland, W.J., Gill, J.A. & Norris, K. (2002) Density dependent dispersal: concepts, evidence, mechanisms and consequences. P134-151 In: Dispersal (ed J. Bullock). Blackwell Scientific Publishing, Oxford.

Paradis, E., Baillie, S.R. & Sutherland, W.J. (2002) Modelling large-scale dispersal distances. Ecological Modelling, 151, 279-292.

Sutherland, W.J. (2002) Ideal free distribution. P557-558.  In: Oxford Encyclopaedia of Evolution. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Stephens, P.A., Frey-Roos, F., Arnold, W. & Sutherland, W.J. (2002) Model complexity and population predictions: the alpine marmot as a case study. Journal of Animal Ecology, 71, 343-361.

Sutherland, W.J. (2002) BOGOF books. Science Public Affairs, April p24.

Sutherland, W.J. (2002) Restoring a sustainable countryside. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 17,148-150.

Freckleton, R.F. & Sutherland, W.J. (2002) Do in-hospital waiting lists show self regulation? Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, 95, 164.

Robinson, R.A. & Sutherland, W.J. (2002) Changes in arable farming and biodiversity in Great Britain. Journal of Applied Ecology 39, 157-176.

Sutherland, W.J. (2001) Sustainable exploitation: a review of principles and methods Wildlife Biology, 7,131-140.

Freckleton, R.F. & Sutherland, W.J. (2001) Do power laws imply self regulation?  Nature, 412, 436.

Kokko, H. & Sutherland, W.J. (2001) Ecological traps in changing environments: ecological and evolutionary consequences of a behaviourally mediated Allee effect. Evolutionary Ecological Research, 3, 537-551.

Gill, J.A., Norris, K. & Sutherland, W.J. (2001) The effects of disturbance on habitat use by black-tailed godwits Limosa limosa. Journal of Applied Ecology, 38, 846-856.

Gill, J.A., Norris, K., Potts, P., Gunnarsson,T., Atkinson, P.W. & Sutherland, W.J. (2001) The Buffer effect and large-scale population regulation in migratory birds. Nature, 412, 436-438. 

Sutherland, W.J. & Gill, J.A. (2001) The role of behaviour in studying sustainable exploitation. In: Conservation of Exploited Species (eds J.Reynolds, G.Mace, K.Redford & J. Robinson) Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. 259-280

Sutherland, W.J. (2001) A new approach to global book distribution. Nature (Correspondence) 411,738.

Rowcliffe, J.M., Watkinson, A.R. Sutherland, W.J. & Vickery, J.A. (2001)The depletion of algal beds by geese: a predictive model and test. Oecologia, 127, 361-371.

Sutherland, W.J. & Watkinson, A.R. (2001) Policy making within ecological uncertainty: lessons from badgers and GM crops. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 16, 261-263.

Gill, J. A. Norris, K. & Sutherland, W.J. (2001) Why behavioural responses may not reflect the population consequences of human disturbance. Biological Conservation. 97,265-268.

Gill, J.A., Sutherland, W.J. & Norris, K. (2001) Depletion models can predict shorebird distribution at different spatial scales. Proceedings of the Royal Society Series B.246, 369-376.

Ausden, M., Sutherland, W.J. & James, R. (2001) The effects of flooding lowland wet grassland on soil macroinvertebrate prey of breeding wading birds. Journal of Applied Ecology, 38, 320-338.

Kokko,H. & Sutherland, W.J. & Johnstone, R.A. (2001) The logic of territory choice: implications for conservation and source-sink dynamics. American Naturalist,157, 459-463.

Sutherland, W.J. (2000) The art of the saveable. Nature (Journal Review) 407, 294

Watkinson, A.R., Freckleton, R.P., Robinson, R.A. & Sutherland (2000) Predictions of biodiversity response to genetically modified herbicide-tolerant crops. Science, 289, 1554-1557.

Smith, C., Reynolds, J.D. & Sutherland, W.J. (2000) Population consequences of reproductive decisions. Proceedings of the Royal Society, 267, 1327-1334.

Smith, C., Reynolds, J.D., Sutherland, W.J. & Jurajda, P. (2000) Adaptive host choice and avoidance of superparasitism in the spawning decisions of bitterling (Rhodeus sericeus) Behavioural ecology and Sociobiology, 48, 29-35.

Sutherland, W.J. (2000) The conservation handbook: research, management and policy. Oxford: Blackwell Scientific.

Baillie, S., Sutherland, W.J. Freeman, S.N., Gregory, R.D. & Paradis, E. (2000) Consequences of large-scale processes for the conservation of bird populations. Journal of Applied Ecology, 37,88-102.

Dereliev, S., Hulea, D., Ivanov, B., Sutherland, W.J. & Summers, R.W. (2000) The numbers and distribution of red-breasted geese at roosts in Bulgaria and Romania. Acta Ornithologica, 35, 63-66.

Paradis, E., Baillie, S.T., Sutherland, W.J., Dudley, C., Crick, H. Q. P. & Gregory, R.D. (2000) Large-scale spatial variation in breeding performances of song thrushes and blackbirds in Britain. Journal of Applied Ecology, 37, 73-87.

Stephens, P.A. & Sutherland, W.J. (2000) Vertebrate mating systems, rarity and conservation Vertebrate Mating Systems, p186-213 in M. Apollonio, M. Festa-Bianchet and D. Mainardi (eds). World Scientific Publishing, London.

Baillie, S.R., Furness, R.W., Clark, J.A., Green, R.E., Gosler, A.G., Ormerod, S.J., Peach, W.J., Stroud, D.A., Sutherland, W.J. & Wilson, J.D. (2000) The scientific strategy of the BTO ringing scheme. Ringing and Migration, 19, S129-143.

Paradis, E., Bailiie, S.R., Sutherland, W.J., & Gregory, R.D. (2000) Spatial synchrony in populations of birds: effects of habitat, population trend and spatial scale. Ecology, 81, 2112-2125.

Gosling, M & Sutherland, W.J. (eds) (2000) Behaviour and Conservation. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Kokko, H. & Sutherland, W.J. (1999) What do impact factors tell us? Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 14, 382-384.

Stephens, P.A. & Sutherland, W.J. (1999) Consequences of the Allee effect for ecology and conservation. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 14, 401-405

Stephens, P.A., Sutherland, W. J. & Freckleton, R.P. (1999) What is the Allee effect? Oikos, 87, 185-190.

Rowcliffe, J.M., Sutherland, W.J. & Watkinson, A.R. (1999) The functional and aggregative responses of a herbivore: underlying mechanisms and the implications for plant depletion. Journal of Animal Ecology, 68, 853-868.

Robinson, R.A. & Sutherland, W.J. (1999) The winter distribution of seed-eating birds: habitat structure, seed density and seasonal depletion. Ecography, 22, 447-454.

Kokko, H., Mackenzie, A., Reynolds, J.D., Lindström, J. & Sutherland, W.J.  (1999) Measures of inequality are not equal. American Naturalist, 154, 358-382.

Sutherland, W.J. (1999) Behavioural mechanisms of population regulation in Passerines. In: Adams, N. & Slotow, R. (Eds), Proceedings of the 22nd International Ornithological Congress Durban, University of Natal.

Sutherland, W.J. (1999) Egyptian Goose. p159-160 In: The Birds of Norfolk (ed M.Seago, P.Allard, D.Dorling and M.Taylor).

Sutherland, W.J. (1999) Controlling pest species; insights from population ecology Advances in Vertebrate pest Management. p57-66 in Proceedings of the first European Pest management Conference (Ed Cowan, D and Feare, C).

Andersen, R., Arnold, W., Genovesi, P., Lebersorger, P., Reimoser,F. Scherzinger, W., Staines, B. & Sutherland, W.J. (1999) Wildlife ecology and wildlife management in Natura 2000 areas: on the need of European co-ordination. p 99-100. Natura 2000. A Chance for Nature Conservation in Europe.

Paradis, E., Bailiie, S.R., Sutherland, W.J., & Gregory, R.D. (1999) Dispersal and spatial scale affect synchrony in metapopulation dynamics. Ecology Letters, 2, 114-120.

Sutherland, W. J., Parker, G. A. & Stephens, P. A. (1999) Interference measures in primates. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 14, 69.

Sutherland, W.J. and Gosling, M. (1999) Advances in the study of behaviour and their role in conservation. p3-9 in Gosling, M and Sutherland, W.J. Behaviour and Conservation. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Sutherland, W.J. and Parker, G.A. (1999) The link between interference and continuous input models. Animal Behaviour, 57, F19-21.

Sutherland, W.J., Parker,G.A., Stephens,P.A. (1999) Oystercatchers rule, OK!...? - Reply. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 14, 69.

Gill, J.A. and Sutherland, W.J. (1999) Predicting the consequences of human disturbance from behavioural decisions. p51-63 In Behaviour and Conservation (ed M. Gosling and W.J. Sutherland) Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Höglund, J., Widemo, F., Sutherland, W.J. and Nordnfors, H.  (1998) Ruff (Philomachus pugnax) and ideal free distribution models: can leks be regarded as patches? Oikos 82, 370-376.

Kokko,H and Sutherland,W.J. (1998) Optimal floating and queuing strategies: consequences for density dependence and habitat loss. American Naturalist, 152, 354-366.

Kokko, H., Sutherland, W.J., Lindström, J., Reynolds, J.D. & Mackenzie, A. (1998) Individual mating success, lek stability, and the neglected limitations of statistical power. Animal Behaviour, 56, 755-762.

Sutherland, W.J. & Parker, G.A. (1998) Interference with ideal free models. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 13, 410.

Sutherland, W.J. (1998) The role of behaviour in conservation biology. Animal Behaviour, 56, 801-809.

Sutherland, W.J. (1998) Evidence for flexibility and constraint in migration systems. Journal of Avian Biology, 29, 441-446.

Sutherland, W.J. (1998) The effect of local change in habitat quality on populations of migratory species. Journal of Applied Ecology, 35, 418-421.

Paradis, E., Baillie, S.R., Sutherland,W.J. & Gregory, R.D. (1998) Patterns of natal and breeding dispersal in birds. Journal of Animal Ecology, 67, 518-536.

Rowcliffe, J.M., Watkinson, A.R & Sutherland, W.J. (1998) Aggregative responses of brent geese on salt marsh and their impact on plant community dynamics. Oecologia, 14, 417-426.

Percival, S.M., Sutherland, W.J. & Evans, P.R. (1998) Intertidal habitat loss and wildfowl numbers: applications of a spatial depletion model. Journal of Applied Ecology. 35, 57-63.

Sutherland, W.J.  (1998) Managing species and habitats. p202-219 in Conservation Science and Action (ed W.J. Sutherland). Blackwells.

Sutherland, W.J. & Reynolds, J.D. (1998) Sustainable and unsustainable exploitation. p90-15 in Conservation Science and Action (ed W.J. Sutherland). Blackwells.

Sutherland, W.J. (1998) (ed) Conservation Science and Action. Blackwells.

Gill, J.A., Sutherland, W.J. & Norris, K. (1998) The consequences of human disturbance for estuarine birds. RSPB Conservation Review 12, 67-72.

Vickery, J.A., Sutherland, W.J., O'Brien, M.O., Watkinson, A.R. & Yallop, A. (1997) Managing wet lowland grasslands for breeding waders and over-wintering geese: is there a conflict? Biological Conservation, 79, 23-34.

Sutherland, W.J. (1997) Evolutionary problems with the Gaia hypothesis. Bulletin British Ecological Society, 28, 193.

Dolman,P. and Sutherland, W.J.  (1997) Spatial patterns of depletion by foraging vertebrates: theory and meta-analysis. Journal of Animal Ecology, 66, 481-494

Henderson,N and Sutherland,W.J. (1997) Discounting and conservation. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 12, 402.

Côté, I.M. & Sutherland,W.J. (1997) Removing predators to protect bird populations: does it work? Conservation Biology, 11, 395-405.

Robinson, R.A. & Sutherland, W.J. (1997) Corn buntings Miliaria calandra in winter - the importance of food. p162-169 In Ecology and conservation of the corn bunting, ed by P.F. Donald and  N. Aebisher. Joint Nature Conservancy Conservation Committee.

Gill, J.A., Watkinson, A.R. & Sutherland, W.J. (1997) Causes of the redistribution of Pink-footed Geese Anser brachrhynchus in Britain. Ibis. 139, 497-503.

Goss-Custard,J.D. & Sutherland,W.J. (1997) Individual behaviour, populations and conservation. p373-395 In Behavioural Ecology. ed J.R.Krebs and N.B.Davies. Blackwells, Oxford.

Sutherland, W.J. (1997) Flaws in the Gaia hypothesis. British Ecological Society Bulletin 28, 104-5.

Henderson, N. & Sutherland, W.J. (1997) Two beliefs about discounting and their environmental irrelevance. Reply. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 12, 293.

Sutherland, W.J. (1996) Predicting the consequences of habitat loss for migratory populations. Proceeding of the Royal Society, 263, 1325-1327.

Gill, J.A., Sutherland, W.J. & Watkinson, A.R. (1996) A method to quantify the effects of human disturbance on animal populations. Journal of Applied Ecology, 33,786-792.

Stillman, R.A., Deutsch, J.C., Clutton-Brock, T.H. & Sutherland, W.J. (1996) Black hole models of ungulate lek size and distribution. Animal Behaviour, 52, 891-902.

Henderson, N. & Sutherland, W.J. (1996) Two truths about discounting and their environmental consequences. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 11,527-8.

Percival, S.M., Sutherland, W.J. & Evans, P.R. (1996) A spatial depletion model of the responses of grazing wildfowl to changes in availability of intertidal vegetation during the autumn and winter. Journal of Applied Ecology, 33, 979-993.

Sutherland, W.J. (1996) From Individual Behaviour to Population Ecology. Oxford University Press.

Rowcliffe, J.M., Watkinson, A.R. Sutherland, W.J. & Vickery, J.A. (1996) Cyclic winter grazing patterns in brent geese and the regrowth of Puccinellia maritime. Functional Ecology, 9, 931-941.

Gill, J.A., Watkinson, A.R. & Sutherland, W.J. (1996) The impact of sugar beet farming practice on wintering pink-footed goose populations. Biological Conservation. 76, 95-100.

Goss-Custard, J.D., West, A.D. & Sutherland, W.J. (1996) Where to feed. p105-132 In: Goss-Custard,J.D. (ed) The Oystercatcher: Behaviour and Ecology. Oxford University Press.

Sutherland, W.J., Ens, B.J. & Hulscher, J.B. (1996) Specialisation. p 56-76 In Goss-Custard,J.D. (ed) The Oystercatcher: Behaviour and Ecology. Oxford University Press.

Sutherland, W.J. (1996) (ed). Ecological census techniques: a handbook. Cambridge University Press.

Sutherland, W.J. (1996) Why census? pp. 1-10 in Sutherland, W.J. (ed). Ecological census techniques: a handbook. Cambridge University Press.

Sutherland, W.J.  (1996) Mammals. pp. 260-280 in Sutherland, W.J. (ed). Ecological census techniques: a handbook. Cambridge University Press.

Sutherland, W.J.  (1996) The twenty commonest censussing sins. pp. 317-318 In Sutherland,W.J. (ed). Ecological census techniques: a handbook. Cambridge University Press.

Gibbons, D., Hill, D.A. & Sutherland, W.J. (1996) Birds. pp. 227-259 in Sutherland,W.J. (ed). Ecological census techniques: a handbook. Cambridge University Press.

Cowie, N.R., Watkinson, A.R. & Sutherland, W.J. (1996) Modelling the growth dynamics of the clonal herb Anenome nemorosa in an ancient coppice wood. Abstracta Botanica, 19, 35-49.

Vickery, J.A. & Sutherland, W.J. (1996) The changing perceptions of the dark-bellied brent goose. British Wildlife, 7, 341-347.

Mackenzie, A., Reynolds, J.D. & Sutherland, W.J. (1995) Measuring sexual selection. Nature, 376, 471.

Gill, J.A., Clark, J., Clark, N. & Sutherland, W.J. (1995) Sex differences in the migration, moult and wintering areas of British ringed ruff. Ringing and Migration. 16, 159-167.

Sutherland, W.J. & Reynolds, J.D. (1995) Honesty in sexual selection. Nature, 375, 280-281.

Sutherland, W.J. (1995) I'iwis fit the bill. Nature, 375, 14.

Vickery, J.A., Sutherland, W.J., Watkinson, A.R., Lane,S.J. & Rowcliffe, M.R. (1995) Habitat switching by dark-bellied brent geese Branta b. bernicla (L.) in relation to food depletion. Oecologia, 103, 499-508.

Sutherland, W.J. (1995) Corncrake conservation. Habataki, 278, 4-5 (in japanese).

Mackenzie, A., Reynolds, J.D., Brown, V.J. & Sutherland, W.J. (1995) Variation in male mating success on leks. American Naturalist, 145, 632-651.

Dolman, P.M. & Sutherland, W.J. (1995) The response of bird populations to habitat loss. Ibis, 137, S38-46.

Watkinson, A.R. & Sutherland, W.J. (1995) Sources, sinks and pseudosinks. Journal of Animal Ecology, 64, 126-130.

Moser, M.E., Bibby, C.,Newton, I., Pienkowski, M.W., Sutherland, W.J., Ulfstrand, S. & Wynne, G. (1995) Bird conservation: the science and the action. Conclusions and recommendations. Ibis, 137, 3-8.

Robinson, R.A. & Sutherland, W.J. (1995) The winter feeding ecology of farmland passerines. pp. 23-24 in The ecology of seed-eating birds in relation to agricultural practices: current research and future directions (eds R.J.Fuller and J.D.Wilson) British Trust for Ornithology Research report no 149.

Goss-Custard, J.D., Caldow, R.G., Clarke, R.T., Durell, S.E.A. le V dit & Sutherland, W.J. (1995) Deriving population parameters from individual variations in foraging behaviour I. Empirical game theory distribution model of oystercatchers Haematopus ostralegus feeding on mussels Mytilus edulis. Journal of Animal Ecology, 64, 265-276.

Sutherland, W.J & Hill, D.A. (eds) (1995) Habitat Management. Cambridge University Press

Sutherland, W.J. (1995) Principles of Habitat Management. pp. 1-25 in Sutherland, W.J. and Hill, D.A. (eds) Habitat Management. Cambridge University Press.

Gill,J., Clark,J.,Clark,N. & Sutherland,W.J. (1995) Sex differences in moult and migration patterns in ruff. Wash Wader Ringing Group Report 94, 35-36.

Sutherland,W.J. (1994) How to save the corncrake. Nature, 372, 223.

Dolman, P.M. & Sutherland, W.J. (1994) The use of soil disturbance in the management of Breckland grass heaths for nature conservation. Journal of Environmental Management, 41, 123-140.

Vickery, J.A., Sutherland, W.J. & Lane, S. (1994) The management of grass pastures for brent geese. Journal of Applied Ecology, 31, 282-290

Vickery, J.A., Watkinson, A.R. & Sutherland, W.J. (1994) The brent goose problem: an economic analysis. Journal of Applied Ecology, 31, 371-382.

Sutherland, W.J. (1994) Depletion models and their consequences for conservation. pp. 337-345 In Leather, S. and Watt, A.D. (eds). In: Individuals, populations and patterns in Ecology. Intercept Press, Andover

Sutherland, W.J. & Dolman, P.M. (1994) Combining behaviour and population dynamics with applications for predicting consequences of habitat loss. Proceedings of the Royal Society, 25,133-138.

Sutherland, W.J. & Allport, G.A. (1994) A spatial depletion model of the interaction between bean geese and wigeon with the consequences for habitat management. Journal of Animal Ecology, 63, 51-59.

Sutherland, W.J. (1993) Good behaviour in conservation. Nature, 366, 300.

Clarke, J.A., Clark, N.A., Gill, J.A. & Sutherland, W.J. (1993) Black-tailed godwits on the Wash. Wash Wader Ringing Group Report, 92, 55-60.

Birkhead, T.R., Møller, A.P. & Sutherland, W.J. (1993) Why do females make it so difficult for males to fertilize their eggs. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 161, 51-60.

Sutherland, W.J. & Baillie, S.R. (1993) Patterns in the distribution, abundance and variability of bird populations. Ibis, 135, 209-210.

Stillman, R.A., Clutton-Brock, T.H.  & Sutherland, W.J. (1993) Black holes, mate retention and the evolution of ungulate leks. Behavioural Ecology, 4,1-6

Ahnesjö, I., Vincent, A., Alatalo, R., Halliday, T. & Sutherland, W.J. (1993) The role of females in influencing mating patterns. Behavioural Ecology, 4,187-189.

Sutherland, W.J. & Henderson, N. (1993) Global Warming. Nature, 362,200.

Sutherland, W.J. & Anderson, C.W. (1993) Predicting the distribution of individuals and the consequences of habitat loss: the role of prey depletion. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 160, 223-230.

Sutherland, W.J. & Crockford, N.J. (1993) Factors affecting the feeding distribution of red-breasted geese Branta ruficolis. Biological Conservation, 63, 61-65.

Vickery, J.A. & Sutherland, W.J. (1992) Brent geese: a conflict between conservation and agriculture. British Crop Protection Council, 50, 187-193.

Ditlhogo, M.K.M., James, R., Laurence, B.R. & Sutherland, W.J. (1992) The effect of conservation management of reed beds 1 The invertebrates. Journal of Applied Ecology, 29, 265-276 .

Sutherland, W.J. (1992) Genes map the migratory route. Nature, 360, 625-6.

Cowie, N.R., Sutherland, W.J., Ditlhogo, M.K.M. & James, R.  (1992) The effect of conservation management of reed beds 11 The flora and litter disappearance.  Journal of Applied Ecology, 29,277-284.

Sutherland, W.J. & Parker, G.A. (1992) The relationship between continuous input and interference models of ideal free distributions with unequal competitors.  Animal Behaviour, 44, 345-355.

Dolman, P.M. & Sutherland, W.J. (1992) The ecological changes of Breckland grass heaths and the consequences of management. Journal of Applied Ecology, 29, 402-413.

Laurence, B.R., Ditlhogo, M.K.M., James, R. & Sutherland, W.J. (1992) Management and the invertebrates of a Phragmites swamp at Hickling. Transactions of the Norfolk and Norwich Naturalists Society, 29, 225-132.

Sutherland, W.J. (1992) Game theory models of functional and aggregative responses. Oecologia, 90,150-152.

Alatalo, R., Lundberg, A., Höglund, J. & Sutherland, W.J. (1992) Evolution of Black grouse leks- female preferences benefit males in larger leks. Behavioral Ecology, 3, 53-59

Warren, S.M  & Sutherland, W.J. (1992) Goose populations: conservation, conflict and solutions. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 7, 71-72.

Sutherland, W.J. & Goss-Custard, J.D. (1991) Predicting the consequence of habitat loss on shorebird populations. Acta Congressus Internationalis Ornithologici, 20, 2199-2207.

Sutherland, W.J. (1991) Population biology: flying in the face of reason. Nature, 353, 211-212.

Sutherland, W.J. & De Jong, M.C.M. (1991) The evolutionarily stable strategy for secondary sexual characters. Behavioral Ecology, 2, 16-20.

Sutherland, W.J. & Allport, G.A. (1991) The distribution and ecology of naturalised egyptian geese Alopochen aegyptiacus  in Britain. Bird Study, 38, 128-134.

Mace, R. H.  & Sutherland, W. J.  (1991) Limits to stochastic dynamic programming. Behaviour and Brain Sciences, 14, 101.

Dolman, P. & Sutherland, W.J. (1991) Historical clues to conservation. New Scientist, 1751, 40-43.

Sutherland, W.J. & Stillman, R.A. (1990) Clonal growth : insights from models. pp. 95-111 in Clonal Growth in Plants: Regulation and Function. (Eds de Kroon,H. & van Groenendael, J)  SPB Publishers, Netherlands.

Sutherland, W.J. (1990) Biological flora of the British Isles. Iris pseudacorus.  Journal of Ecology, 78, 833-848.

Sutherland, W.J. & Walton, D. (1990) The changes in morphology and demography of Iris pseudacorus  at different heights on a saltmarsh. Functional Ecology, 4, 661-665.

Stillman, R.A. & Sutherland, W.J. (1990) The optimal search path in a patchy environment. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 145, 177-182.

Sutherland, W.J. (1990) The great pigeonhole in the sky. New Scientist, 1720, 73-74.

Sutherland, W.J. (1990) Foraging patterns of plants in patchy environments. pp. 45-61 In Living in Patchy Environments. (Ed Shorrocks,B &  Swingland, I.G.) Oxford University Press.

Townsend, C.R., Sutherland, W.J. & Perrow, M.R. (1990) A modelling investigation of population cycles in the fish Rutilus rutilus  (L.). Journal of Animal Ecology, 59, 469-485.

Sutherland, W.J. (1990) Evolution and fisheries. Nature, 344, 814-815.

Sutherland, W.J. (1989) Latitudinal changes in life histories. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 4, 273.

Sutherland, W.J. (1989) Unstatistical bias. Nature, 340, 498.

Sutherland, W.J. (1989) Hatching asynchrony in birds. Nature, 339, 510.

Gustaffson, L. & Sutherland, W.J. (1988) The costs of reproduction in the collared flycatcher Ficedula albicollis.   Nature, 335, 813-185.

Sutherland, W.J. (1988) The heritability of migration.  Nature, 334, 471-472.

Sutherland, W.J., Townsend, C.R. & Patmore, J.M. (1988) A test of the ideal free distribution with unequal competitors. Behavioural Ecology and Sociobiology, 23, 51-53.

Sutherland, W.J. (1988) Plant foraging behaviour. Ziggurat, 6, 16-17.

Sutherland,W.J. & Stillman, R.A. (1988) The foraging tactics of plants. Oikos, 52,239-244.

Sutherland,W.J. & Watkinson, A.R. (1988) Ecological studies of plants. Journal of Biological Education, 22, 31-36.

Sutherland, W.J. (1988) Predation may link the cycles of lemmings and arctic birds. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 3, 29-30.

Sutherland, W.J. & Gibson, C. (1988) Habitats to order. New Scientist, 1597, 70.

Sutherland, W.J. & Ens, B. (1987) The criteria determining the selection of mussels Mytilus edulis  by oystercatchers Haematopus ostralegusBehaviour, 103, 187-202.

Wilkinson, G.S., Clutton-Brock, T.H.,  Grafen, A.,  Harvey, P.H., Howard, R.D., Linsenmair, K.E., Poethke, H.J., Reyer, H.-U., Sutherland, W.J., Noordwijk, A.J. van, Wade, M.J. & Wirtz, P. (1987) The empirical study of sexual selection. pp. 234-245  In Bradbury, J.W. and Andersson, M.B. Ieds. Sexual Selection: Testing the Alternatives. John Wiley & Sons.

Sutherland, W.J. (1987) Random and deterministic components of variance in mating success. pp. 207-219 In Bradbury, J.W. and Andersson, M.B. eds. Sexual Selection: Testing the Alternatives. John Wiley & Sons.

Sutherland, W.J. (1987) Plant growth and foraging behaviour. Nature, 330, 18-19.

Sutherland, W.J. & Anderson, C.W. (1987) Six ways in which a foraging predator may encounter options with different variances. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 30, 99-114.

Sutherland, W.J. (1987) Why do animals specialise? Nature, 325, 483-484.

Sutherland, W.J. (1986) Search time as a basis for models of sexual selection. pp. 117-128 in Models in Ethology. (Ed R. Zayan & P. Colgan) Privat Publishers, Toulouse.

Sutherland, W.J. (1986) Oystercatcher. pp. 178-179. In: The Atlas of Wintering Birds in Britain and Ireland. (P.Lack ed.). Poyser. London.

Sutherland, W.J., Jones, D.W.F. & Hadfield, R.W. (1986) Age differences in the feeding ability of moorhens Gallinule chloropusIbis, 128, 414-418.

Parker, G.A. & Sutherland, W.J. (1986) Ideal free distribution when individuals differ in competitive ability: phenotype-limited ideal free models. Animal Behaviour, 34, 1222-1242.

Sutherland, W.J. & Watkinson, A.R. (1986) Do plants evolve differently? Nature, 320, 305.

Sutherland, W.J., Grafan, A. & Harvey, P.H. (1986) Life history correlations and demography. Nature, 320, 88.

Clarkson, K.C., Eden, S.F., Sutherland, W.J. & Houston, A.I. (1986) Density dependence and magpie food hoarding. Journal of Animal Ecology, 55, 111-121.

Sutherland, W.J. (1985) Chance can produce a sex difference in variance in mating success and explain Bateman's data. Animal Behaviour, 33, 1349-1352.

Sutherland, W.J. & Parker, G.A. (1985) The distribution of unequal competitors. pp. 255-278 in Behavioural Ecology: the Ecological Consequences of Adaptive Behaviour. (R.H.Smith & R.M.Sibly eds). Blackwells.

Sutherland,  W.J. (1985) Measures of sexual selection.  Oxford Surveys in Evolutionary Biology, 2, 90-101.

Sutherland, W.J. & Moss, D. (1985) Inactivity in animals: influence of stochasticity and prey size. Behaviour, 92, 1-8

Goss-Custard, J.D. & Sutherland, W.J. (1984) Feeding specialisation in oystercatchers Haematopus ostralegus  Animal Behaviour, 32, 299-301.

Sutherland, W.J. (1983) Aggregation and the ideal free distribution. Journal of Animal Ecology, 52, 821-828.

Krebs, J.R., Stevens, D.W. & Sutherland, W.J. (1983) Perspectives in optimal foraging. pp. 165-216. In A.H. Brush & G.A. Clark (Eds). Perspectives in Ornithology. Cambridge University Press.

Sutherland, W.J. (1983) Oystercatcher food. p21-23. In: Birds of the Western Palaearctic. S. Cramp & K.E.L Simmons. (Eds) Oxford University Press.

Hill, D.A., Robertson, H.A. & Sutherland, W.J. (1983) Brown rats (Rattus norvegicus) climbing to obtain sloes and blackberries. Journal of Zoology, 200, 302.

Sutherland, W.J. (1982) Food supply and dispersal in the determination of wintering population levels of oystercatchers Haematopus ostralegusEstuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 14, 223-229.

Sutherland, W.J. & Koene, P. (1982) Field estimates of the strength of interference between oystercatchers. Oecologia, 55, 108-109.

Sutherland, W.J. (1982) Spatial variation in the predation of cockles by oystercatchers at Traeth melynog, Anglesey. II. The pattern of mortality. Journal of Animal Ecology, 51, 491-500.

Sutherland, W.J. (1982) Spatial variation in the predation of cockles by oystercatchers at Traeth Melynog, Anglesey. 1. The cockle population. Journal of Animal Ecology, 51, 481-489.

Sutherland, W.J. (1982) Do oystercatchers select the most profitable cockles? Animal Behaviour, 30, 857-861.

Sutherland, W.J. & Brooks, D.J. (1981) Territorial behaviour in little stints on spring passage. British Birds, 74, 522-523.

Sutherland, W.J. (1981) Population turnover in turnstones. SCAN ringing group report for 1980, 34-35.

Sutherland, W.J. & Brooks, D.J. (1981) The visible migration of passerines and near passerines at the Belen Pass, Southern Turkey, in autumn. Sandgrouse, 3, 87-90.

Sutherland, W.J. (1980) Why conserve estuaries? Ecos, 1, 22-24.

Sutherland, W.J. & Brooks, D.J. (1980) Autumn migration of raptors, storks, pelicans and spoonbills at the Belen Pass, Southern Turkey, in autumn. Sandgrouse, 2, 1-21.

Sutherland, W.J. & Brooks, D.J. (1979) Nest of Black-browed albatross in Shetland. British Birds, 72, 286-288.