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Department of Zoology



After completing a seabird DPhil at Oxford while employed as warden of Skokholm Bird Observatory, I did post-docs at Oxford and then Cambridge.

From there, I was absorbed onto the staff of Zoology Department on a part-time basis. While not a road to riches, this trajectory allowed me scope to travel (to some of the world's most wonderful places) and for consultancy, the latter constructively interacting with my academic interests.


My conservation work is connected to my position as Curator of Birds in the University Museum of Zoology and ranges from the strictly practical to more theoretical research which nevertheless aims to provide information of direct use to conservation planning. This spectrum is reflected in the work of recent research students who have studied, inter alia, declining ring ousels in Britain, climate-induced shifts in the geographical ranges of North American birds, and what causes the apparent male adult sex ratio bias among threatened bird species.


Through connections with the UK Overseas Territories Conservation Forum and the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds, I am involved with ongoing programmes to remove troublesome alien species from oceanic islands, for example in the Pitcairn Islands of the tropical Pacific and the Cape Verdes off West Africa. A companion desk study, undertaken collaboratively with the RSPB, investigated how, at a global level, such eradication programmes might be prioritised in terms of their conservation worth to birds. There may be scope for expanding this work to integrate other taxa.



While the know-how for ridding islands of invasives is improving fast, the information on how rapidly species of conservation concern recover after an eradication is poor. Can we develop a better understanding of the circumstances in which that recovery is given a kick-start by immigration, as opposed to enhanced reproductive success? The Falkland Islands, where some 60 islands have now benefitted from rat eradication, is an archipelago where such a project might be undertaken. Recently I paid a reconnaissance visit to the Islands with the practical assistance of the newly-established South Atlantic Environmental Research Institute.


Since 2002, I have led a small team monitoring the population dynamics of the Critically Endangered Raso Lark of the Cape Verdes, a species displaying a marked male sex ratio bias. The species has increased remarkably in numbers 2004-2011, from about 65 individuals to 1500. It now seems likely that the population can only decline which may offer enhanced opportunities for investigating selection on the morphology which shows an unusual degree of sexual size dimorphism.


Seabirds continue to throw up taxonomic problems. Slightly perversely, these may be due to the extreme philopatry of some species and the considerable post-Pleistocene range lability of others. Resolution of the taxonomic uncertainty will help ensure conservation resources are wisely targeted. One seabird of great interest, because of its extraordinary range expansion, is the Northern Fulmar. Our contemporary studies provided little support for the traditional 'out-of-Iceland' scenario for the expansion. We are currently exploring whether the picture painted by 100-year old museum specimens is similar.

Bird plumage

While some aspects of bird plumage are clearly related to sexual selection, we lack any general predictive framework for bird coloration. I would therefore welcome any projects designed to investigate more ecological explanations of bird colours. One recent research student studied the widespread occurrence of black-brown sexual dimorphism among passerine birds.


Key publications: 
  • 2020 JJ Negro, J Doña, M Carmen Blázquez, A Rodríguez, JE Herbert-Read & MdeL Brooke. Contrasting stripes are a widespread feature of group living in birds, mammals and fishes. Proc. R. Soc. B.287: 20202021.
  • 2020 M Stervander, EG Dierickx, J Thorley, MdeL Brooke & H Westerdahl. High MHC gene copy number maintains diversity despite homozygosity in a Critically Endangered single-island endemic bird, but no evidence of MHC-based mate choice. Mol. Ecol. 29: 3578-3592.
  • 2020. EG Dierickx, SYW Sin, HPJ van Veelen, MdeL Brooke, Y Liu, SV Edwards & SH Martin. Neo-sex chromosomes and demography shape genetic diversity in the Critically Endangered Raso Lark. Proc. Roy. Soc. B 287:
  • 2019 EG Dierickx, RA Robinson & MdeL Brooke. Survival of a long-lived single island endemic, the Raso lark Alauda razae, in relation to fluctuating population and rainfall. Sci Rep 9, 19557
  • 2018 M Brooke.Far from Land: the mysterious lives of seabirds. Princeton University Press, New Jersey.
  • 2017. TA Clay, RA Phillips, A. Manica, HA. Jackson & MdeL Brooke. Escaping the oligotrophic gyre? The year-round movements, foraging behaviour and habitat preferences of Murphy’s petrels. Mar Ecol Prog Ser, 579: 139–155.
  • 2017. MdeL Brooke, E Bonnaud, BJ Dilley, E. Flint, ND Holmes, HP Jones, P Provost, G. Rocamora, PG Ryan, C Surman & RT Buxton. Seabird population changes following mammal eradications on islands. Anim Conserv, 21: 3-12. doi:10.1111/acv.12344
  • 2016. W Amos, HJ Nichols, T Churchyard & MdeL Brooke.  Rat eradication comes within a whisker! A case study of a failed project from the South Pacific. R. Soc. Open Sci. 3: 160110.
  • Brooke, M. de L., Flower, T.P., Campbell, E.M., Mainwaring, M.C., Davies, S. & Welbergen, J.A. (2012). Rainfall-related population growth and sex ratio change in the Critically Endangered Raso lark Alauda razae. Anim. Conserv. DOI: 10.1111/j.1469-1795.2012.00535.x
  • Brooke, M. de L. (2010). Unexplained recurrent features of the plumage of birds. Ibis 152: 845-847.
  • Brooke, M. de L., O'Connell, T.C., Wingate, D., Madeiros, J., Hilton, G.M., & Ratcliffe, N. (2010) The potential for rat predation to cause decline of the globally threatened Henderson petrel Pterodroma atrata: evidence from population modelling, the field and stable isotopes. Endangered Species Research 11: 47-59.
  • Brooke, M. de L, Hilton, G. & Martins, T.L.F. (2007). Prioritising the world's islands for vertebrate eradication programmes. Anim. Conserv., 10: 380-390.
  • Brooke, M. de L. (2004). The food consumption of the world’s seabirds. Biology Letters271(0): 246-248.
  • Brooke, M. de L. (2004). Albatrosses and petrels across the world. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
  • Burg, T.M., Almond, R., Lomax, J., Brooke, M. de L. and Amos, W. (2003). Unravelling dispersal patterns in an expanding population of a highly mobile seabird, the northern fulmar. Proc. Roy. Soc. B., 270: 979-984.
  • Brooke, M. de L. (2001). Systematics and distribution of seabirds of the world: a review of current knowledge. Pp. 57-83 in 'The Biology of Marine Birds' (ed. E-A Schreiber and J. Berger). CRC Press, Boca Raton.
  • Brooke, M. de L. (1998). Ecological factors influencing the occurrence of 'flash marks' in wading birds. Functional Ecology, 12: 339-346.
Other publications: 


  • M Brooke, L Gregory, P Geraldes, L Castelló, PF Donald, T Melo & J Bores. Lessons and surprises from an inter-island re-introduction of the Critically Endangered Raso Lark Alauda razae of Cape Verde. Parks journal DOI: 10.2305/IUCN.CH.2020.PARKS-26-2MB.en


  • AL Bond, MdeL Brooke, RJ Cuthbert, JL Lavers, GTW McClelland, T Churchyard, A Donaldson, N Duffield, A Forrest, G Harrison, L Mackinnon, T Proud, A Skinner, N Torr, JA Vickery & S Oppel) Population status of four endemic landbird species after an unsuccessful rodent eradication on Henderson Island. Bird Conserv. Int. 29: 124-135.
  • TA Clay, S Oppel, JL Lavers, RA Phillips & MdeL Brooke. Divergent foraging strategies during incubation of an unusually wide-ranging seabird, the Murphy’s petrel. Marine Biology,
  • MdeLBrooke. Rat eradication in the Pitcairn Islands, South Pacific: A 25-year perspective. Pp. 95-99 in: CR Veitch, MN Clout, AR Martin, JC Russell & CJ West (eds.).  Island invasives: scaling up to meet the challenge. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland.
  • ND Holmes, DR Spatz, S Oppel, B Tershy….MdeL Brooke et al.) Globally important islands where eradicating invasive mammals will benefit highly threatened vertebrates. PLoS ONE e0212128.
  •  MdeLBrooke Is eliciting disgust responses from its predators beneficial for toxic prey? Anim. Behaviour 155: 225-227.
  • H Sigeman,S Ponnikas, P Chauhan, E Dierickx, MdeL Brooke & B Hansson. Predisposed sex chromosome formation in vertebrates supported by expanded avian sex chromosomes. Proc.  R.  Soc.  B 286: 20192051.


  • MdeL Brooke, E Bonnaud, BJ Dilley, E. Flint, ND Holmes, HP Jones, P Provost, G. Rocamora, PG Ryan, C Surman & RT Buxton. Enhancing the value of future island eradications needs improved understanding of past outcomes. Anim Conserv, 21: 19-20. doi:10.1111/acv.12398
  • PR Taylor, R MacMinn, S Marsh, MdeL Brooke, M MacDonald, P Hughes, F Donald, H Docherty, A Over, J Beaton, D Scridel, L Robertson & N Currie) Seabird population trends on the Shiant Isles, Outer Hebrides, 2000-15. Scottish Birds 38: 3-14.
  • MdeL Brooke. Extreme rainfall-related clutch size variation in the Critically Endangered Raso Lark Alauda razae of the arid Cape Verde islands. Bird Conserv. Int., 29: 321-326. doi:10.1017/S0959270918000163


  • S Oppel S, JL Lavers, AK Forrest, AH Donaldson, GTW McClelland, AL Bond & MdeL Brooke. Population status and breeding biology of the Henderson Petrel after a failed rat eradication on Henderson Island. Emu, 117: 151-159.


  • S Oppel, AL Bond, MdeL Brooke, G Harrison, JA Vickery & RJ Cuthbert. Temporary captive population and rapid population recovery of an endemic flightless rail after a rodent eradication operation using aerially distributed poison bait. Biol Conserv, 204: 442-448


  • JC Venables & MdeL Brooke. The comparative effects of small geographic range and population decline on the adult sex ratio of threatened bird species. Bird Conserv. Int., 25: 182-191.
  • HJ Murray, EJ Green, DR Williams, IJ Burfield & MdeL Brooke. Is research effort associated with the conservation status of European bird species? Endang. Species Res., 27: 193-206
  • PT Fretwell, RA Phillips, MdeL Brooke, AH Fleming & A McArthur) Using the unique spectral signature of guano to identify unknown seabird colonies. Remote Sensing of the Environment, 156: 448-456.
  • M Pott, A Wegmann, R Griffiths, A Samaniego-Herrera, RJ Cuthbert, MdeL Brooke, W Pitt, A Berentsen, ND Holmes, G Howald, K Ramos-Rendón & J Russell. Improving the odds: assessing bait availability before rodent eradications to inform bait application rates. Biol. Conserv., 185: 27-35
  • MdeL Brooke & PF Donald. A calhandra do ilhéu Raso. Pp 244-275 in Cabo Verde – História Natural das Ilhas Desertas (ed. by R Vasconcelos, R Freitas & CJ Hazevoet). Sociedade Caboverdiana de Zoologia, Mindelo


  • CE Thomson, JDJ Gilbert & MdeL Brooke. Cytochrome b divergence between avian sister species is linked to generation length and body mass. PLoS ONE 9(2): e85006. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0085006.
  • TM Burg, H Bird, L Lait & MdeL Brooke. Colonization pathways of the northeast Atlantic by northern fulmars: a test of James Fisher's ‘out of Iceland’ hypothesis using museum collections. J. Avian Biol. 45: 209-218.


  • (Mde L Brooke, RJ Cuthbert, G Harrison, C Gordon, MA Taggart) Persistence of brodifacoum in cockroach and woodlice: implications for secondary poisoning during rodent eradications. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, in press.


  • (RJ Cuthbert, MdeL Brooke & N Torr). Overcoming hermit crab interference during rodent baiting operations: a case study from Henderson Island, South Pacific. Wildlife Research, 39: 70-77.
  • (MdeL Brooke, TP Flower, EM Campbell, MC Mainwaring, S Davies & JA Welbergen) Rainfall-related population growth and sex ratio change in the Critically Endangered Raso lark Alauda razae. Animal Conservation, 16: 466-471 DOI: 10.1111/j.1469-1795.2012.00535.x.


  • (S Riou, CM Gray, MdeL Brooke, P Quillfeldt, JF Masello, C Perrins & KC Hamer) Recent impacts of anthropogenic climate change on a higher marine predator in western Britain. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 422: 105-112.
  • (MdeL Brooke, RJ Cuthbert, R Mateo & MA Taggart) An experimental test of the toxicity of cereal pellets containing brodifacoum to the snails of Henderson Island, South Pacific. Wildlife Research, 38: 34-38.


  • (MW Lowe, MdeL Brooke, K Rookmaaker & L Wetton) Charles Darwin’s Tinamou egg. Archives of Natural History, 37: 165-167.
  • (CP Bell, SW Baker, NG Parkes, MdeL Brooke & DE Chamberlain) The role of the Eurasian Sparrowhawk (Accipiter nisus) in the decline of the House Sparrow (Passer domesticus) in Britain. Auk, 127: 411-420.
  • (Mde L Brooke,TC O'Connell, D Wingate, J Madeiros, GM Hilton & N Ratcliffe) The potential for rat predation to cause decline of the globally threatened Henderson petrel Pterodroma atrata: evidence from population modelling, the field and stable isotopes. Endangered Species Research, 11: 47-59.
  • (MdeL Brooke, JA Welbergen, MC Mainwaring, AMF Harts, M van der Welde, J Komdeur & W Amos) Widespread Translocation from Autosomes to Sex Chromosomes Preserves Genetic Variability in an Endangered Lark. Journal of Molecular Evolution, 70: 242-246.
  • (MdeL Brooke) Important Bird Areas - Henderson Island. British Birds, 103: 428-444.
  • (MdeLBrooke) Unexplained recurrent features of the plumage of birds. Ibis, 152: 845-847.
  • (MdeL Brooke, TP Flower & MC Mainwaring) A scarcity of females may constrain population recovery of threatened bird species: case notes from the Critically Endangered Raso lark Alauda razae. Bird Conservation International, 20: 382-384.
  • (MdeL Brooke) Vertical transmission of featherlice between adult blackbirds Turdus merula and their nestlings: a lousy perspective. Journal of Parasitology, 96: 1076-1080.


  • (RE Green, KN Barnes & MdeL Brooke) How the longspur won its spurs: a study of claw and toe length in ground-dwelling passerine birds. J. Zool., 277: 126-133.
  • (LG Graham-Taylor, AE Stubbs & MdeL Brooke) Changes in phenology of hoverflies in a central England garden. Insect Conservation & Diversity, 2: 29-35.
  • (F Bonadonna, SP Caro & MdeLBrooke) Olfactory sex recognition investigated in Antarctic Prions. PLoS One 4(1): e4148 doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0004148.
  • (MdeLBrooke) A necessary adjustment of the extinction risk associated with the Red List Criteria? Avian Conservation and Ecology 4(1): 1. [online] URL:
  • (MA Alves, CN Jenkins, SL Pimm, A Storni, MA Raposo, MdeL Brooke, G Harris & A Foster) Birds, Montane Forest, State of Rio de Janeiro, Southeastern Brazil. Check List 5: 289-299.
  • (JJ Groombridge, DA Dawson, R Prys-Jones, MdeL Brooke & N Shah) Evaluating the demographic history of the Seychelles kestrel (Falco araea): genetic evidence for recovery form a population bottleneck following minimal conservation management, Biol. Conserv. 142: 2250-2257.


  • (MdeL Brooke, SHM Butchart, ST Garnett, GM Crowley, NB Mantilla-Beniers, AJ Stattersfield) How fast are threatened bird species moving towards extinction? Conserv. Biol., 22, 417-427.
  • (MA Alves, SL Pimm, A Storni, M Raposo, MdeL Brooke, G Harris, A Foster & CN Jenkins) Remote sensing guided search for the Grey-winged Cotinga Tijuca condita. Oryx, 42: 562-566.
  • (O Sychra, J-K Jensen, MdeL Brooke, A Trnka, P Procházka & I Literak) The identity of Menacanthus eisenachensis Balát (Insecta, Phthiraptera, Amblycera, Menoponidae) from the Reed Warbler (Passeriformes, Sylviidae). Acta Parasitologica 53: 404-406.


  • (MdeL Brooke, G Hilton & TLF Martins) The complexities of costing eradications: a reply to Donlan & Wilcox. Anim. Conserv., 10; 157-158.
  • (IMW Sim, IJ Burfield, MC Grant, JW Pearce-Higgins & MdeL Brooke) The role of habitat composition in determining breeding site occupancy in a declining Ring Ouzel Turdus torquatus population. Ibis, 149: 374-385.
  • (PF Donald, S Hille, MdeL Brooke, R Taylor, CE Wells, MR Bolton & T Marlow) Sexual dimorphism, niche partitioning and dominance in the feeding ecology of the critically endangered Raso Lark Alauda razae. Ibis, 149: 848-852.
  • (MdeL Brooke, G Hilton & TLF Martins) Prioritising the world's islands for vertebrate eradication programmes. Anim. Conserv., 10: 380-390.


  • (O Kruger & MdeL Brooke) Brood parasitism in birds. Pp. 327-366 in: Reproductive biology and phylogeny of Aves (Jamieson, B.G.M. ed.). Science Publishers Inc., New Hampshire
  • (TLF Martins, MdeL Brooke, G Hilton, S Farnsworth, J Gould & D Pain) Costing eradications of alien mammals from islands. Anim. Conserv., 9: 439-444.
  • (PF Donald & MdeL Brooke) An unlikely survivor: the peculiar natural history of the Raso Lark. Brit. Birds, 99: 420-430.
  • (MdeLBrooke) Pitcairn Islands. Pp. 185-199 in: Important Bird Areas in the UK Overseas Territories (Sanders, S.M. ed.). RSPB, Sandy.



  • (PF Donald, MdeL Brooke, MR Bolton, R Taylor, CE Wells, T Marlow & SM Hille). Status of Raso Lark Alauda razae in 2003, with further notes on sex ratio, behaviour and conservation. Bird Conservation International, 15: 165-172.
  • (A Keane, MdeL Brooke & PJK McGowan). Correlates of extinction risk and hunting pressure in gamebirds (Galliformes). Biological Conservation, 126: 216-233
  • (MR Wijesinghe & MdeL Brooke) Impact of habitat disturbance on the distribution of endemic species of small mammals and birds in a tropical rain forest in Sri Lanka. Journal of Tropical Ecology, 21: 661-668.
  • (CM Gray, MdeL Brooke & KC Hamer) Repeatability of chick growth and food provisioning in Manx shearwaters. Journal of Avian Biology, 36: 374-379
  • (IJ Burfield & MdeL Brooke) The decline of the Ring Ouzel Turdus torquatus in Britain: evidence from bird observatory data. Ringing & Migration, 22: 199-204.


  • (MdeL Brooke, I Hepburn & RJ Trevelyan). Henderson Island World Heritage Site Management Plan, 2004-2009. Foreign & Commonwealth Office, London.
  • (MR Wijesinghe & MdeL Brooke) What causes the vulnerability of endemic animals? A case study from Sri Lanka. Journal of Zoology, 263: 135-140.
  • (MdeL Brooke) The food consumption of the world’s seabirds. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B, Biology Letters, S4: 246-248.
  • (G Gage, MdeL Brooke, MRE Symonds & D Wege) Ecological correlates of the threat of extinction in Neotropical bird species. Animal Conservation, 7: 161-168.
  • (MdeL Brooke) Albatrosses and petrels across the world. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
  • (MdeL Brooke, V Copas, R Gylee & O Kruger) Long-lived fellows. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 19: 8.


  • (MdeL Brooke & H Nakamura) The acquisition of host-specific feather lice by common cuckoos (Cuculus canorus). Pp. 261-271 in Insect and bird interactions (ed. by H. van Emden). Intercept Ltd, Andover.
  • (TM Burg, R Almond, J. Lomax, MdeL Brooke & W Amos) Unravelling dispersal patterns in an expanding population of a highly mobile seabird, the northern fulmar. Proc. Roy. Soc. B. 270: 979-984.


  • (MdeL Brooke) Cuckoo. Pp. 423-425 in ‘The Migration Atlas’ (ed. C. Wernham et al. ). T. & A.D. Poyser, London.
  • (MdeL Brooke, A Douse, S. Haysom, F.C. Jones & A. Nicolson) The Atlantic Puffin population of the Shiant Islands, 2000. Scottish Birds 23: 22-26.
  • (JR Hall, RW Woods, MdeLBrooke & GM Hilton) Factors affecting the distribution of landbirds on the Falklands Islands. Bird Conservation International 12: 151-167.


  • (J Cooper, MdeL Brooke, AE Burger, RJM Crawford, S Hunter & AJ Williams) Aspects of the breeding biology of the Northern Giant Petrel (Macronectes halli) and the Southern Giant Petrel (M. giganteus) at sub-Antarctic Marion Island. International Journal of Ornithology 4: 53-68.
  • (MdeL Brooke) Systematics and distribution of seabirds of the world: a review of current knowledge. Pp. 57-83 in ‘The Biology of Marine Birds’ (ed. E-A Schreiber & J. Berger). CRC Press, Boca Raton.


  • (H Lisle Gibbs, MD Sorenson, K Marchetti, MdeL Brooke, NB Davies & H Nakamura) Female-specific differentiation between host races of the common cuckoo. Nature 407: 183-186.
  • (A Balmford, MJ Lewis, MdeL Brooke, ALR Thomas & CN Johnson) Experimental analyses of sexual and natural selection on short tails in a polygynous warbler. Proc. Roy. Soc. B 267: 1121-1128
  • (MdeL Brooke) Why museums matter. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 15: 136-137 & 375.
  • (D Pain, MdeL Brooke, JK Finnie & A Jackson) Effects of brodifacoum on the land crab Gecarcinus lagostoma on Ascension Island: acute effects, persistence and distribution in tissues. Journal of Wildlife Management 64: 380-387.
  • (MdeL Brooke, MJ Imber & G Rowe) The occurrence of two surface-breeding species of Pterodroma on Round Island, Indian Ocean. Ibis 142: 154-158.


  • (CS Dolton & MdeL Brooke) Changes in the biomass of British breeding birds, 1968-1988. Bird Study 46: 274-278.
  • (MdeL Brooke, D Keith & N Røv) Exploitation of inland-breeding Antarctic petrels by South Polar skuas. Oecologia 121: 25-31.
  • (MdeL Brooke) How old are animals? Trends in Ecology & Evolution 14: 211-212.
  • (MdeL Brooke) PMs and policemen are getting younger. Nature 398: 102.
  • (MdeL Brooke, S Hanley & SB Laughlin) The scaling of eye size with body mass in birds. Proc. Roy. Soc. B, 266: 405-412.


  • (NB Davies & MdeL Brooke) Cuckoos versus hosts: Experimental evidence for co-evolution. Pp. 59-79 in Parasitic birds and their hosts: Studies in co-evolution (ed. S.I. Rothstein & S.K. Robinson). Oxford University Press, Oxford.
  • (MdeL Brooke) Conservation challenges in the smaller Overseas Territories. Ecos 19: 31-35.
  • (MdeL Brooke, NB Davies & DG Noble) Rapid decline of host defences in response to reduced cuckoo parasitism: behavioral flexibility of reed warblers in a changing world. Proc. Roy. Soc. B. 265: 1277-1282.
  • (MdeL Brooke) Ecological factors influencing the occurrence of 'flash marks' in wading birds. Functional Ecology 12: 339-346.
  • (MdeL Brooke) Is the preservation of biodiversity worthwhile? Cryo-letters Suppl. 1: 3-6.
  • (MdeL Brooke & H Nakamura) The acquisition of host-specific feather lice by common cuckoos. J. Zool. 244: 159-165.


  • (NB Davies & MdeL Brooke) Cuckoos and reed warblers. Pp. 165-172 in 'Wicken Fen: the making of a wetland nature reserve' (ed. L. Friday). Harley Books, Colchester.
  • (DA Jones, H Lisle Gibbs, T Matsuda, MdeL Brooke, H Uchida & MJ Bayliss) The use of single and multilocus DNA fingerprinting to determine the mating system of an obligate brood parasitic bird, the common cuckoo. Ibis, 139: 560-562.


  • (NB Davies, MdeL Brooke & A Kacelnik) Recognition errors and probability of parasitism determine whether reed warblers should accept or reject mimetic cuckoo eggs. Proc. Roy. Soc. B 263: 925-931.
  • (Mde L Brooke & G Rowe) Behavioural and molecular evidence for specific status of dark and light morphs of the Herald Petrel Pterodroma heraldica. Ibis 138: 420-432.
  • (MdeL Brooke, PJ Jones, JA Vickery & S Waldren) Seasonal patterns of leaf growth and loss, flowering and fruiting on a sub-tropical Central Pacific Island. Biotropica 28: 164-179.
  • (MdeL Brooke) The calls of Murphy’s Petrel Pterodroma ultima. Notornis 43: 50-52.
  • (H Lisle Gibbs, MdeL Brooke & NB Davies) Analysis of genetic differentiation of host races of the common cuckoo Cuculus canorus using mitochondrial and microsatellite DNA variation. Proc. Roy. Soc. B 263: 89-96.


  • (MdeL Brooke & IR Hartley) Nesting Henderson Reed-warblers Acrocephalus vaughani taiti studied by DNA fingerprinting: unrelated coalitions in a stable habitat? Auk 112: 77-86.
  • (PJ Jones, S Schubel, JN Jolly, MdeL Brooke & JA Vickery) Behaviour, natural history, and the annual cycle of the Henderson Island Rail (Porzana atra). Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 56: 167-183.
  • (MJ Imber, JN Jolly & MdeL Brooke) Pelagic food of three sympatric gadfly petrels (Pterodroma spp.) breeding on the Pitcairn Islands. Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 56: 233-240.
  • (MdeL Brooke & PJ Jones) The diet of the Henderson fruit dove Ptilinopus insularis. I. Field observations of fruit choice. Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 56: 149-165.
  • (MdeL Brooke) Seasonality and numbers of turtles nesting on the Pitcairn Islands. Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 56: 325-327.
  • (MdeL Brooke) The breeding biology of the gadfly petrels Pterodroma spp. of the Pitcairn Islands: characteristics, population sizes and controls. Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 56: 213-231.
  • (MdeL Brooke) The modern avifauna of the Pitcairn Islands. Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 56: 199-212.


  • (MdeL Brooke & ML Tasker) Manx Shearwater. Pp. 68-69 in ‘Birds in Europe - Their Conservation Status (ed. by GM Tucker & MF Heath). BirdLife Conservation Series No. 3, Cambridge.
  • (JA Vickery & MdeL Brooke) The kleptoparasitic interactions between great frigatebirds Fregata minor and masked boobies Sula dactylatra on Henderson Island, South Pacific. Condor 96: 331-340.


  • (DA Scott & MdeL Brooke) Discovery of the Grey-winged Cotinga Tijuca condita. Bird Conservation International 3: 1-12.
  • (MA Peirce & Mde L Brooke) Failure to detect blood parasites in seabirds from the Pitcairn Islands. Seabird 15: 72-74.


  • (S Hunter & MdeL Brooke) The diet of giant petrels Macronectes spp. at Marion Island, Southern Indian Ocean. Colonial Waterbirds 15: 56-65.
  • (WRP Bourne, MdeL Brooke, GS Clark & T Stone) Wildlife conservation problems in the Juan Fernandez archipelago, Chile. Oryx 26: 43-51.


  • (MdeL Brooke & NB Davies) A failure to demonstrate host imprinting in the cuckoo (Cuculus canorus) and alternative hypotheses for the maintenance of egg mimicry. Ethology 89: 154-166.
  • (NB Davies & MdeL Brooke) Co-evolution of the cuckoo and its hosts. Sci. Am. 264: 92-98.
  • (MdeL Brooke & PA Prince) Nocturnality in seabirds. Acta XX Congr. Int. Ornith.: 1113-1121.
  • (GR Martin & MdeL Brooke) Introductory remarks: nocturnality in birds. Acta XX Congr. Int. Ornith.: 1091-1097.
  • (MdeL Brooke & TR Birkhead {eds.}) The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Ornithology. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
  • (BP Hayes, GR Martin & MdeL Brooke) Novel area serving binocular vision in the retinae of procellariiform seabirds. Brain, Behav. Evol. 37: 79-84.
  • (GR Martin & MdeL Brooke) The eye of a procellariiform seabird, the Manx Shearwater Puffinus puffinus: visual fields and optical structure. Brain, Behav. Evol. 37: 65-78.


  • (BP Hayes & MdeL Brooke) Retinal ganglion cell distribution and behaviour in procellariiform seabirds. Vision Research 30: 1277-1289.
  • (MdeL Brooke) Classic Sites: Skokholm Island. Biologist 37: 40-42.
  • (MdeL Brooke) The Manx Shearwater. Academic Press, London.
  • (RJ Brown, MN Brown, MdeL Brooke & NB Davies) Reactions of parasitized and unparasitized populations of Acrocephalus warblers to model cuckoo eggs. Ibis 132: 109-111.


  • (MdeL Brooke & NB Davies) Provisioning of nestling cuckoos Cuculus canorus by Reed Warbler Acrocephalus scirpaceus hosts. Ibis 131: 250-256.
  • (MdeL Brooke) Determination of the absolute visual threshold of a nocturnal seabird, the Common Diving Petrel Pelecanoides urinatrix. Ibis 131: 290-294.
  • (NB Davies, AFG Bourke & MdeL Brooke) Cuckoos and parasitic ants: Interspecific brood parasitism as an evolutionary arms race. Trends Ecol. Evol. 4: 274-278.
  • (NB Davies & MdeL Brooke) An experimental study of co-evolution between the cuckoo, Cuculus canorus, and its hosts. II. Host egg markings, chick discrimination and general discussion. J. Anim. Ecol. 58: 225-236.
  • (NB Davies & MdeL Brooke) An experimental study of co-evolution between the cuckoo, Cuculus canorus, and its hosts. I. Host egg discrimination. J. Anim. Ecol. 58: 207-224.
  • (NT Klages, MdeL Brooke & BP Watkins) Prey of Northern Rockhopper Penguins at Gough Island, South Atlantic Ocean. Ostrich 59: 162-165.


  • (MdeL Brooke) Sexual dimorphism in the voice of the Greater Shearwater. Wilson Bull. 100: 319-323.
  • (MdeL Brooke) Distribution and numbers of the Masafuera Rayadito Aphrastura masafuerae on Isla Alejandro Selkirk, Juan Fernandez Archipelago, Chile. Bull. B.O.C. 108: 4-9.
  • (MdeL Brooke & NB Davies) Egg mimicry by cuckoos Cuculus canorus in relation to discrmination by hosts. Nature 335: 630-632.
  • (NB Davies & MdeL Brooke) Cuckoos and Reed Warblers: adaptations and counter-adaptations. Anim. Behav. 36: 262-284.


  • (MdeL Brooke & NB Davies) Recent changes in host usage by cuckoos Cuculus canorus in Britain. J. Anim. Ecol. 56: 873-883.
  • (MdeL Brooke) The birds of the Juan Fernandez Islands, Chile. ICBP Study Report no. 16: 1-50, Cambridge.
  • (MdeL Brooke) Population estimates and breeding biology of the petrels Pterodroma externa and P. longirostris on Isla Alejandro Selkirk, Juan Fernandez Archipelago. Condor 89: 581-586.
  • (MP Harris, UN Safriel, MdeL Brooke & CK Britton) The pair bond and divorce among Oystercatchers Haematopus ostralegus on Skokholm Island, Wales. Ibis 129: 45-57.


  • (MdeL Brooke & N Klages) Squid beaks regurgitated by Grey-headed and Yellow-nosed Albatrosses, Diomedea chrysostoma and D. chlororhynchos, at the Prince Edward Islands. Ostrich 57: 203-206.
  • (MdeL Brooke) Manx Shearwater chicks: seasonal, parental and genetic influences on the chick's age and weight at fledging. Condor 88: 324-327.
  • (MdeL Brooke) The vocal systems of two nocturnal burrowing petrels, the White-chinned Procellaria aequinoctialis and the Grey P. cinerea. Ibis 128: 502-512.


  • (MdeL Brooke) The effect of allopreening on tick burdens on molting eudyptid penguins. Auk 102: 893-895.
  • (MdeL Brooke) Skua predation on penguin eggs: the influence of prey quality and location. Wilson Bull. 97: 366-368.
  • (DA Scott & MdeL Brooke) The endangered avifauna of south-eastern Brazil: a report on the BOU/WWF expeditions of 1980/81 and 1981/1982. Pp. 115-139 in Conservation of Tropical Forests (ed. by AW Diamond). Int. Council for Bird Preservation Technical Publication no. 2, Cambridge.
  • (PA Nuttall, MdeL Brooke & CM Perrins) Pox virus infection of the Manx Shearwater. J. Wildlife Diseases 21: 120-124.
  • (MdeL Brooke, DR Lees & JM Lawman) Spot distributions in the Meadow Brown butterfly Maniola jurtina L. (Lepidoptera: Satyridae): South Welsh populations. Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 24: 337-348.
  • (MdeL Brooke) The annual cycle of the Toc-toc Foudia sechellarum on Cousin Island, Seychelles. Ibis 127: 7-15.


  • (J Cooper & MdeL Brooke) Breeding status of burrowing petrels at Prince Edward Island. S. Afr. J. Ant. Res. 14: 34-35.
  • (UN Safriel, MP Harris, MdeL Brooke & CK Britton) Survival of breeding Oystercatchers Haematopus ostralegus. J. Anim. Ecol. 53: 867-877.


  • (MdeL Brooke) Ecological segregation of woodcreepers (Dendrocolaptidae) in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Ibis 125: 562-567.
  • (MdeL Brooke & DC Houston) The biology and biomass of the skinks Mabuya sechellensis and M. wrightii on Cousin Island, Seychelles. J. Zool., Lond. 200: 179-195.
  • (MdeL Brooke) Wheatears, leatherjackets and a comment on central place foraging. Anim. Behav. 31: 304-305.
  • (MdeL Brooke & MC Garnett) Survival and reproductive performance of Hawksbill Turtles Eretmochelys imbricata L., on Cousin Island, Seychelles. Biol. Conserv. 25: 161-170.
  • (MdeL Brooke, DA Scott & Dante Martins Teixeira) Some observations made at the first recorded nest of the Sharpbill Oxyruncus cristatus. Ibis 125: 259-261.


  • (DA Scott & MdeL Brooke) Ecology and behaviour of the grey-winged cotinga. Pp. 109-110 in The Cotingas by DW Snow. Oxford University Press, Oxford.


  • (MdeL Brooke) How an adult wheatear (Oenanthe oenanthe) uses its territory when feeding nestlings. J. Anim. Ecol. 50: 683-696.
  • (MdeL Brooke) Size as a factor influencing the ownership of the copulation burrows of the ghost crab Ocypode ceratophthalmus. Zeitschrift fur Tierpsychologie 55: 63-78.


  • (MdeL Brooke) Differences in the quality of territories held by wheatears (Oenanthe oenanthe). J. Anim. Ecol. 48: 21-32.


  • (MdeL Brooke) Some factors affecting the laying date, incubation and breeding success of the Manx Shearwater Puffinus puffinus. J. Anim. Ecol. 47: 477-496.
  • (MdeL Brooke) A test for visual location of the burrow by Manx Shearwaters Puffinus puffinus. Ibis 120:347-349.
  • (MdeL Brooke) The dispersal of female Manx Shearwaters Puffinus puffinus. Ibis 120: 545-551.
  • (MdeL Brooke) Weights and measurements of the Manx Shearwater Puffinus puffinus. J. Zool. Lond. 186: 359-374.
  • (MdeL Brooke) Inland observations of Barau's Petrel Pterodroma baraui on Reunion. Bull. B.O.C. 98: 90-95.
  • (MdeL Brooke) Sexual differences in the voice and individual vocal recognition in the Manx Shearwater Puffinus puffinus. Anim. Behav. 26: 622-629.


  • (MdeL Brooke) Different capture times of rare and common migrants at Skokholm Bird Observatory. Ringing and Migration 1: 131-134.


  • (CM Perrins & MdeL Brooke) Manx Shearwaters in the Bay of Biscay. Bird Study 23: 295-299.


  • (MP Harris & MdeL Brooke) Skokholm Oystercatchers and the Burry Estuary. Skokholm Bird Observatory Report for 1974: 17-19.


  • (MdeL Brooke) Age of breeding Manx Shearwaters. Skokholm Bird Observatory Report for 1973: 15-18.
  • (MdeL Brooke) Birds of the Shiant Islands, Outer Hebrides. Bird Study 20: 197-206.


  • (MdeL Brooke) The Puffin population of the Shiant Islands, Outer Hebrides. Bird Study 19: 1-6.


  • (MdeL Brooke) Diurnal activity rhythms of the Kittiwake in the Arctic summer. Seabird Report for 1971: 41-46.
  • (MdeL Brooke) Articles on Puffin, mice and bristle-tail studies on St. Kilda. Brathay Exploration Group Field Studies Report no. 20.


  • (MdeL Brooke) Some aspects of Mute Swan mortality and movement. Cambridge Bird Club Report 44: 44-47.
Strickland Curator of Ornithology, University Museum of Zoology

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